Category: EUGENICS TRANSHUMANIZATION


It’s all scripted! Ebola outbreak and impossibly rapid vaccine response clearly scripted; U.S. govt. patented Ebola in 2010 and now owns all victims’ blood


It’s all scripted! Ebola outbreak

and impossibly rapid vaccine

response clearly scripted; U.S.

govt. patented Ebola in 2010

and now owns all victims’ blood

September 21, 2014 2:39 pm EST

By Mike Adams | Natural News

On the very same day that vaccine maker GlaxoSmithKline is being fined $490 million by Chinese authorities for running an illegal bribery scheme across China [3], the media is announcing the “astonishing” launch of human trials for an Ebola vaccine.

Care to guess who will be manufacturing this vaccine once it is whitewashed and rubber-stamped as “approved?” GlaxoSmithKline, of course. The same company that also admitted to a massive criminal bribery network in the United States, where felony crimes were routinely committed to funnel money to over 40,000 physicians who pushed dangerous prescription drugs onto patients.

This is the company that is now — today! — injecting 60 “volunteers” with an experimental Ebola vaccine.

Spontaneous vaccine development a scientific impossibility

“Normally it would take years of human trials before a completely new vaccine was approved for use,” reports the BBC. [1] “But such is the urgency of the Ebola outbreak in west Africa that this experimental vaccine is being fast tracked at an astonishing rate.”

Yes, it’s astonishing because it’s impossible.

As any vaccine-related virologist already knows, the process of going from an in-the-wild infection of Ebola to a manufactured vaccine ready for human trials simply cannot be achieved in a matter of a few weeks or months. Apparently, we are all to believe that a spontaneous scientific miracle has now taken place — a literal act of vaccine magic — which has allowed the criminal vaccine industry to skip the tedious R&D phases and create a vaccine ready for human trials merely by waving a magic wand.

“The first of 60 healthy volunteers will be injected with the vaccine,” says the BBC today, and vaccine pushers are of course lining up to proclaim the vaccine miracle which has spontaneously appeared before them like a burning bush:

Professor Adrian Hill, director of the Jenner Institute in Oxford, who is leading the trial, said: “This is a remarkable example of how quickly a new vaccine can be progressed into the clinic, using international co-operation.”

Near-proof that this was all scripted

The far more likely explanation, of course, is that all this was scripted in advance: the outbreak, the international cry for help, the skyrocketing of the stock price for Tekmira (which has received financial investments from Monsanto), the urgent call for a vaccine and now the spontaneous availability of human vaccine trials. It’s all beautifully scripted from start to finish, better than a Shakespearean tragedy played out on the international stage.

The “heroes” of this theater have been pre-ordained to be drug companies and vaccines, and it is already written in the script that vaccines will be heralded as lifesaving miracles of modern science even if they infect people and cause widespread damage as has now happened to young girls in Colombia who are being hospitalized en masse after being injected with HPV vaccines. [2]

Incredibly, the official response from vaccine-pushing health authorities in Colombia is that all these girls who are suffering from paralysis are merely “imagining” their symptoms and suffering from “mass hysteria.” Obviously, if vaccines are created by the gods of modern science — the new cult of our delusional world — then they must be perfect and infallible. Therefore, anyone who suffers side effects of such perfect vaccines must obviously be imagining things. Such is the delusional dogma of modern vaccine pushers.

This will be the exact same explanation leveled against anyone who suffers harmful effects from an Ebola vaccine, too. After all, the discovery of vaccine side effects simply isn’t in the script being played out before us. Therefore, it cannot be allowed, and any person who actually suffers side effects will be immediately deemed to be mentally ill. (Yes, this is how insane and Orwellian the vaccine industry has become. All who do now bow down to the voodoo of dangerous vaccines are labeled mental patients and then treated with psychiatric drugs. The vaccine industry has quite literally become the Heaven’s Gate Cult of modern medicine…)

The United States government now owns the patent on Ebola

This plot gets even more interesting when you realize that a patent on Ebola was awarded to the United States government just four years ago, in 2010.

That patent, number CA2741523A1, is available here.

Astonishingly, the patent claims U.S. government ownership over all variants of Ebola which share 70% or more of the protein sequences described in the patent: “[CLAIMS] …a nucleotide sequence of at least 70%-99% identity to the SEQ ID…”

Furthermore, the patent also claims ownership over any and all Ebola viruses which are “weakened” or “killed,” meaning the United States government is literally claiming ownership over all Ebola vaccines.

What this means, of course, is that the U.S. government can demand royalties on all Ebola vaccines.

Even more Orwellian is the fact that the U.S. government can use this patent to halt all other research for treatments or cures for Ebola.

Patent monopoly gives U.S. government legal right to block all non-vaccine Ebola treatments, cures or research

Do you remember the massive medical controversy over the BRCA1 gene tied to breast cancer in women? One corporation claimed patent ownership over the gene and then they used that patent to shut down all other research, testing or diagnosis of breast cancer related to that gene. To date, nearly 20% of the human genome has been claimed as “owned” by corporations, universities and even the government.

The controversy went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court which ultimately ruled that human genes cannot be patented. But the Supreme Court decision actually protected patents on gene sequences for viruses and other pathogens.

The truth of the matter is that anyone who owns the Ebola gene patent can legally use that patent to shut down all research on Ebola, including research for non-vaccine medical treatments and cures. This is how medical monopolies are reinforced: by monopolizing all the research and all the “cures.”

Even more frightening, the “ownership” over Ebola extends to Ebola circulating in the bodies of Ebola victims. When Dr. Kent Brantly was relocated from Africa to the CDC’s care in Atlanta, that entire scene was carried out under the quasi-legal justification that the U.S. government “owned” the Ebola circulating in Dr. Brantly’s blood. Thus, one of the very first things that took place was the acquisition of his blood samples for archiving and R&D by the CDC and the U.S. Department of Defense.

(Only the gullible masses think that was about saving the life of a doctor. The real mission was to acquire the Ebola strain circulating in his body and use it for weaponization research, vaccine research and other R&D purposes.)

Anyone infected with Ebola now deemed to be carrying “government property” in the form of a patented virus

This brings us to the quarantine issue. As the whole world knows by now, the entire nation of Sierra Leone is now under a state of medical martial law, where Ebola victims are now being hunted down like fugitives in door-to-door manhunts. [4]

Simultaneously, the United States government is now operating under Obama’s executive order #13674, signed on July 31, 2014, which allows the U.S. federal government to arrest and quarantine any person who shows symptoms of infectious disease. [5]

This executive order allows federal agents to forcibly arrest and quarantine anyone showing symptoms of:

…Severe acute respiratory syndromes, which are diseases that are associated with fever and signs and symptoms of pneumonia or other respiratory illness, are capable of being transmitted from person to person, and that either are causing, or have the potential to cause, a pandemic, or, upon infection, are highly likely to cause mortality or serious morbidity if not properly controlled.

Part of the legal argument for justifying such a quarantine in the case of Ebola goes like this: If you are carrying Ebola in your body, then you are in possession of U.S. government property!

The fact that the virus is replicating in your body is, legally speaking, a violation of patent law. Because you are providing a host environment for the replication of the virus, you technically are breaking federal laws that restrict the copying and distributed of patented properties, which in this case include the Ebola virus.

Thus, the government has every right to “relocate” you and prevent you from violating patent law by replicating, distributing or spreading THEIR intellectual property (i.e. the Ebola virus).

Lest you think this legal argument sounds insane, just remember that the legal system is full of lawyers who make far more insane arguments on a daily basis, including the argument that human genes could be patented in the first place. And medical officials also make insane, irrational arguments almost constantly, including the argument that all those girls in Colombia who are suffering convulsions and paralysis from the HPV vaccine are merely “imagining” their symptoms. Such explanations flatly defy any attachment to sane thinking.

Ultimately, the patent on the Ebola virus provides the legal justification for forced government quarantines — and even medical research — on Ebola victims.

“Ebola is a genetically modified organism”

What I’ve outlined in this story is just a small taste of the crime against humanity which is taking place right before our eyes. I am now convinced that this Ebola outbreak is very likely not an accident, and many scientists in Africa wholeheartedly agree that the outbreak is actually the deployment of a biological weapon.

“Ebola is a genetically modified organism (GMO),” declared Dr. Cyril Broderick, Professor of Plant Pathology, in a front-page story published in the Liberian Observer. [6]

He goes on to explain:

[Horowitz] confirmed the existence of an American Military-Medical-Industry that conducts biological weapons tests under the guise of administering vaccinations to control diseases and improve the health of “black Africans overseas.”

SITES AROUND AFRICA, AND IN WEST AFRICA, HAVE OVER THE YEARS BEEN SET UP FOR TESTING EMERGING DISEASES, ESPECIALLY EBOLA

The World Health Organization (WHO) and several other UN Agencies have been implicated in selecting and enticing African countries to participate in the testing events, promoting vaccinations, but pursuing various testing regiments.

AFRICAN LEADERS AND AFRICAN COUNTRIES NEED TO TAKE THE LEAD IN DEFENDING BABIES, CHILDREN, AFRICAN WOMEN, AFRICAN MEN, AND THE ELDERLY. THESE CITIZENS DO NOT DESERVE TO BE USED AS GUINEA PIGS!

Africa must not relegate the Continent to become the locality for disposal and the deposition of hazardous chemicals, dangerous drugs, and chemical or biological agents of emerging diseases. There is urgent need for affirmative action in protecting the less affluent of poorer countries, especially African citizens, whose countries are not as scientifically and industrially endowed as the United States and most Western countries, sources of most viral or bacterial GMOs that are strategically designed as biological weapons. It is most disturbing that the U. S. Government has been operating a viral hemorrhagic fever bioterrorism research laboratory in Sierra Leone.

The world must be alarmed. All Africans, Americans, Europeans, Middle Easterners, Asians, and people from every conclave on Earth should be astonished. African people, notably citizens more particularly of Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone are victimized and are dying every day.

Learn the truth at BioDefense.com

If you really want to learn the truth about all this, listen to the free Pandemic Preparedness audio course available right now at www.BioDefense.com

All MP3 files are freely downloadable, and new episodes are being posted every few days.

Also check out these 11 horrifying truths about Ebola that you’re not supposed to know.

Nearly one million people have now visited www.BioDefense.com since its launch last week. Find out there what the mainstream media won’t dare tell you. Your life may quite literally depend on it.

Sources for this article include:
[1] http://www.bbc.com/news/health-29230157

[2] http://news.yahoo.com/mystery-illness-plague…

[3] http://www.bbc.com/news/business-29274822

[4] http://www.naturalnews.com/046945_medical_ma…

[5] http://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2014…

[6] http://www.liberianobserver.com/security/ebo…

[7] http://www.google.com/patents/CA2741523A1

[8] http://www.naturalnews.com/036417_Glaxo_Merc…

[9] http://www.naturalnews.com/046259_ebola_outb…

[10] http://www.naturalnews.com/040400_gene_paten…

[11] http://www.naturalnews.com/028492_BRCA1_huma…

[12] http://www.thecommonsenseshow.com/2014/09/17…

This article originally appeared on Natural News.


35 of the Most Dangerous Viruses and Bacteria’s in the World Today

The Black Plague, Marburg, Ebola, Influenza, Enterovirus virus may all sound terrifying, but it’s not the most dangerous virus in the world. It isn’t HIV either. Here is a list of the most dangerous viruses and Bacteria’s on the Planet Earth.

High security laboratory

1. Marburg Virus The most dangerous virus is the Marburg virus. It is named after a small and idyllic town on the river Lahn – but that has nothing to do with the disease itself. The Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus. As with Ebola, the Marburg virus causes convulsions and bleeding of mucous membranes, skin and organs. It has a fatality rate of 90 percent.  The Marburg virus causes a rare, but severe hemorrhagic fever that has a fatality rate of 88%. It was first identified in 1967 when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever cropped up simultaneously in Marburg, where the disease got its name, Frankfurt in Germany and Belgrade, Serbia.

marburg

Marburg and Ebola came from the Filoviridae family of viruses. They both have the capacity to cause dramatic outbreaks with the greatest fatality rates. It is transmitted to humans from fruit bats and spreads to humans through direct contact with the blood, secretions and other bodily fluids of infected humans. No anti-viral treatment or vaccine exists against the Marburg virus. In 1967, a group of lab workers in Germany (Marburg and Frankfurt) and Serbia (then Yugoslavia) contracted a new type of hemorrhagic fever from some virus-carrying African green monkeys that had been imported for research and development of polio vaccines. The Marburg virus is also BSL-4, and Marburg hemorrhagic fever has a 23 to 90 percent fatality rate. Spread through close human-to-human contact, symptoms start with a headache, fever, and a rash on the trunk, and progress to multiple organ failure and massive internal bleeding.

There is no cure, and the latest cases were reported out of Uganda at the end of 2012. An American tourist who had explored a Ugandan cave full of fruit bats known to be reservoirs of the virus contracted it and survived in 2008. (But not before bringing his sick self back to the U.S.)

2. Ebola Virus  There are five strains of the Ebola virus, each named after countries and regions in Africa: Zaire, Sudan, Tai Forest, Bundibugyo and Reston. The Zaire Ebola virus is the deadliest, with a mortality rate of 90 percent. It is the strain currently spreading through Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, and beyond. Scientists say flying foxes probably brought the Zaire Ebola virus into cities.

Typically less than 100 lives a year. UPDATE: A severe Ebola outbreak was detected in West Africa in March 2014. The number of deaths in this latest outbreak has outnumbered all other known cases from previous outbreaks combined. The World Health Organization is reporting nearly 2,000 deaths in this latest outbreak.
Once a person is infected with the virus, the disease has an incubation period of 2-21 days; however, some infected persons are asymptomatic. Initial symptoms are sudden malaise, headache, and muscle pain, progressing to high fever, vomiting, severe hemorrhaging (internally and out of the eyes and mouth) and in 50%-90% of patients, death, usually within days. The likelihood of death is governed by the virulence of the particular Ebola strain involved. Ebola virus is transmitted in body fluids and secretions; there is no evidence of transmission by casual contact. There is no vaccine and no cure.

Its melodic moniker may roll off the tongue, but if you contract the virus (above), that’s not the only thing that will roll off one of your body parts (a disturbing amount of blood coming out of your eyes, for instance). Four of the five known Ebola viral strains cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), which has killed thousands of people in sub-Saharan African nations since its discovery in 1976.

The deadly virus is named after the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo where it was first reported, and is classified as a CDC Biosafety Level 4, a.k.a. BSL-4, making it one of the most dangerous pathogens on the planet. It is thought to spread through close contact with bodily secretions. EHF has a 50 to 90 percent mortality rate, with a rapid onset of symptoms that start with a headache and sore throat and progress to major internal and external bleeding and multiple organ failure. There’s no known cure, and the most recent cases were reported at the end of 2012 in Uganda.

3. The Hantavirus describes several types of viruses. It is named after a river where American soldiers were first thought to have been infected with the Hantavirus, during the Korean War in 1950. Symptoms include lung disease, fever and kidney failure.

70,000 Deaths a Year
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a deadly disease transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva. Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in aerosolized virus. HPS was first recognized in 1993 and has since been identified throughout the United States. Although rare, HPS is potentially deadly. Rodent control in and around the home remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus infection. Also known as House Mouse Flu. The symptoms, which are very similar to HFRS, include tachycardia and tachypnea. Such conditions can lead to a cardiopulmonary phase, where cardiovascular shock can occur, and hospitalization of the patient is required.

There are many strains of hantavirus floating around (yep, it’s airborne) in the wake of rodents that carry the virus. Different strains, carried by different rodent species, are known to cause different types of illnesses in humans, most notably hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)—first discovered during the Korean War—and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), which reared its ugly head with a 1993 outbreak in the Southwestern United States. Severe HFRS causes acute kidney failure, while HPS gets you by filling your lungs with fluid (edema). HFRS has a mortality rate of 1 to 15 percent, while HPS is 38 percent. The U.S. saw its most recent outbreak of hantavirus—of the HPS variety—at Yosemite National Park in late 2012.

4. Avian Influenza Bird Flu The various strains of bird flu regularly cause panic – which is perhaps justified because the mortality rate is 70 percent. But in fact the risk of contracting the H5N1 strain – one of the best known – is quite low. You can only be infected through direct contact with poultry. It is said this explains why most cases appear in Asia, where people often live close to chickens.

bird_flu

This form of the flu is common among birds (usually poultry) and infects humans through contact with secretions of an infected bird.

Although rare, those infected have a high incidence of death. Symptoms are like those of the more common human form of influenza.

Bird flu (H5N1) has receded from international headlines for the moment, as few human cases of the deadly virus have been reported this year. But when Dutch researchers recently created an even more transmissible strain of the virus in a laboratory for research purposes, they stirred grave concerns about what would happen if it escaped into the outside world. “Part of what makes H5N1 so deadly is that most people lack an immunity to it,” explains Marc Lipsitch, a professor of epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) who studies the spread of infectious diseases. “If you make a strain that’s highly transmissible between humans, as the Dutch team did, it could be disastrous if it ever escaped the lab.”

F2.medium

H5N1 first made global news in early 1997 after claiming two dozen victims in Hong Kong. The virus normally occurs only in wild birds and farm-raised fowl, but in those isolated early cases, it made the leap from birds to humans. It then swept unimpeded through the bodies of its initial human victims, causing massive hemorrhages in the lungs and death in a matter of days. Fortunately, during the past 15 years, the virus has claimed only 400 victims worldwide—although the strain can jump species, it hasn’t had the ability to move easily from human to human, a critical limit to its spread.

H5N1virus

That’s no longer the case, however. In late 2011, the Dutch researchers announced the creation of an H5N1 virus transmissible through the air between ferrets (the best animal model for studying the impact of disease on humans). The news caused a storm of controversy in the popular press and heated debate among scientists over the ethics of the work. For Lipsitch and many others, the creation of the new strain was cause for alarm. “H5N1 influenza is already one of the most deadly viruses in existence,” he says. “If you make [the virus] transmissible [between humans], you have to be very concerned about what the resulting strain could do.”

h5n1

To put this danger in context, the 1918 “Spanish” flu—one of the most deadly influenza epidemics on record—killed between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide, or roughly 3 to 6 percent of those infected. The more lethal SARS virus (see “The SARS Scare,” March-April 2007, page 47) killed almost 10 percent of infected patients during a 2003 outbreak that reached 25 countries worldwide. H5N1 is much more dangerous, killing almost 60 percent of those who contract the illness.

bird-flu-0002

If a transmissible strain of H5N1 escapes the lab, says Lipsitch, it could spark a global health catastrophe. “It could infect millions of people in the United States, and very likely more than a billion people globally, like most successful flu strains do,” he says. “This might be one of the worst viruses—perhaps the worst virus—in existence right now because it has both transmissibility and high virulence.”

Influenza A Pandemics

Ironically, this is why Ron Fouchier, the Dutch virologist whose lab created the new H5N1 strain, argues that studying it in more depth is crucial. If the virus can be made transmissible in the lab, he reasons, it can also occur in nature—and researchers should have an opportunity to understand as much as possible about the strain before that happens.

The-Difference-bird-flu-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-30089904-754-552

Lipsitch, who directs the Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics at HSPH, thinks the risks far outweigh the rewards. Even in labs with the most stringent safety requirements, such as enclosed rubber “space suits” to isolate researchers, accidents do happen. A single unprotected breath could infect a researcher, who might unknowingly spread the virus beyond the confines of the lab.

11951_12034_3

In an effort to avoid this scenario, Lipsitch has been pushing for changes in research policy in the United States and abroad. (A yearlong, voluntary global ban on H5N1 research was lifted in many countries in January, and new rules governing such research in the United States were expected in February.) Lipsitch says that none of the current research proposals he has seen “would significantly improve our preparational response to a national pandemic of H5N1. The small risk of a very large public health disaster…is not worth taking [for] scientific knowledge without an immediate public health application.” His recent op-eds in scientific journals and the popular press have stressed the importance of regulating the transmissible strain and limiting work with the virus to only a handful of qualified labs. In addition, he argues, only technicians who have the right training and experience—and have been inoculated against the virus—should be allowed to handle it.

Figure 5_MACKAY

These are simple limitations that could drastically reduce the danger of the virus spreading, he asserts, yet they’re still not popular with some researchers. He acknowledges that limiting research is an unusual practice scientifically but argues, “These are unusual circumstances.”

h5n1_online_630px

Lipsitch thinks a great deal of useful research can still be done on the non-transmissible strain of the virus, which would provide valuable data without the risk of accidental release. In the meantime, he hopes to make more stringent H5N1 policies a priority for U.S. and foreign laboratories. Although it’s not a perfect solution, he says, it’s far better than a nightmare scenario.

5. Lassa Virus  A nurse in Nigeria was the first person to be infected with the Lassa virus. The virus is transmitted by rodents. Cases can be endemic – which means the virus occurs in a specific region, such as in western Africa, and can reoccur there at any time. Scientists assume that 15 percent of rodents in western Africa carry the virus.

Marburg virus

The Marburg virus under a microscope

This BSL-4 virus gives us yet another reason to avoid rodents. Lassa is carried by a species of rat in West Africa called Mastomys. It’s airborne…at least when you’re hanging around the rat’s fecal matter. Humans, however, can only spread it through direct contact with bodily secretions. Lassa fever, which has a 15 to 20 percent mortality rate, causes about 5000 deaths a year in West Africa, particularly in Sierra Leone and Liberia.

It starts with a fever and some retrosternal pain (behind the chest) and can progress to facial swelling, encephalitis, mucosal bleeding and deafness. Fortunately, researchers and medical professionals have found some success in treating Lassa fever with an antiviral drug in the early stages of the disease.

6. The Junin Virus is associated with Argentine hemorrhagic fever. People infected with the virus suffer from tissue inflammation, sepsis and skin bleeding. The problem is that the symptoms can appear to be so common that the disease is rarely detected or identified in the first instance.

1a02f12

A member of the genus Arenavirus, Junin virus characteristically causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). AHF leads to major alterations within the vascular, neurological and immune systems and has a mortality rate of between 20 and 30%.  Symptoms of the disease are conjunctivitis, purpura, petechia and occasional sepsis. The symptoms of the disease are relatively indistinct and may therefore be mistaken for a different condition.

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Since the discovery of the Junin virus in 1958, the geographical distribution of the pathogen, although still confined to Argentina, has risen. At the time of discovery, Junin virus was confined to an area of around 15,000 km². At the beginning of 2000, the distribution had risen to around 150,000 km². The natural hosts of Junin virus are rodents, particularly Mus musculus, Calomys spp. and Akodon azarae.

Arenaviridae-Schema

Direct rodent to human transmission only transpires when contact is made with excrement of an infected rodent. This commonly occurs via ingestion of contaminated food or water, inhalation of particles within urine or via direct contact of broken skin with rodent excrement.

7. The Crimea-Congo Fever Virus is transmitted by ticks. It is similar to the Ebola and Marburg viruses in the way it progresses. During the first days of infection, sufferers present with pin-sized bleedings in the face, mouth and the pharynx.

Transmitted through tick bites this disease is endemic (consistently present)  in most countries of West Africa and the Middle East. Although rare, CCHF has a 30% mortality rate. The most recent outbreak of the disease was in 2005 in Turkey. The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a common disease transmitted by a tick-Bourne virus. The virus causes major hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with a fatality rate of up to 30%. It is chiefly transmitted to people through tick and livestock. Person-to-person transmission occurs through direct contact with the blood, secretions and other bodily fluids of an infected person. No vaccination exists for both humans and animals against CCHF.

8. The Machupo Virus is associated with Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, also known as black typhus. The infection causes high fever, accompanied by heavy bleedings. It progresses similar to the Junin virus. The virus can be transmitted from human to human, and rodents often the carry it.

824-112474

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Ordog Fever, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease originating in Bolivia after infection by Machupo virus.BHF was first identified in 1963 as an ambisense RNA virus of the Arenaviridae family,by a research group led by Karl Johnson. The mortality rate is estimated at 5 to 30 percent.

Manchupo

Due to its pathogenicity, Machupo virus requires Biosafety Level Four conditions, the highest level.In February and March 2007, some 20 suspected BHF cases (3 fatal) were reported to the El Servicio Departmental de Salud (SEDES) in Beni Department, Bolivia, and in February 2008, at least 200 suspected new cases (12 fatal) were reported to SEDES.In November 2011, a SEDES expert involved in a serosurvey to determine the extent of Machupo virus infections in the Department after the discovery of a second confirmed case near the departmental capital of Trinidad in November, 2011, expressed concern about expansion of the virus’ distribution outside the endemic zone in Mamoré and Iténez provinces.

NAmerican viruses

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever was one of three hemorrhagic fevers and one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological weapons before the nation suspended its biological weapons program. It was also under research by the Soviet Union, under the Biopreparat bureau.

9. Kyasanur Forest Virus  Scientists discovered the Kyasanur Forest Virus (KFD) virus in woodlands on the southwestern coast of India in 1955. It is transmitted by ticks, but scientists say it is difficult to determine any carriers. It is assumed that rats, birds and boars could be hosts. People infected with the virus suffer from high fever, strong headaches and muscle pain which can cause bleedings.

KFD-Distribution-In-India

The disease has a morbidity rate of 2-10%, and affects 100-500 people annually.The symptoms of the disease include a high fever with frontal headaches, followed by hemorrhagic symptoms, such as bleeding from the nasal cavity, throat, and gums, as well as gastrointestinal bleeding.An affected person may recover in two weeks time, but the convalescent period is typically very long, lasting for several months. There will be muscle aches and weakness during this period and the affected person is unable to engage in physical activities.

kyasanur-virus-ecology

There are a variety of animals thought to be reservoir hosts for the disease, including porcupines, rats, squirrels, mice and shrews. The vector for disease transmission is Haemaphysalis spinigera, a forest tick. Humans contract infection from the bite of nymphs of the tick.

Kyasanur Forest Disease Host

The disease was first reported from Kyasanur Forest of Karnataka in India in March 1957. The disease first manifested as an epizootic outbreak among monkeys killing several of them in the year 1957. Hence the disease is also locally known as Monkey Disease or Monkey Fever. The similarity with Russian Spring-summer encephalitis was noted and the possibility of migratory birds carrying the disease was raised. Studies began to look for the possible species that acted as reservoirs for the virus and the agents responsible for transmission. Subsequent studies failed to find any involvement of migratory birds although the possibility of their role in initial establishment was not ruled out. The virus was found to be quite distinctive and not closely related to the Russian virus strains.

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Antigenic relatedness is however close to many other strains including the Omsk hemorrhagic fever (OHF) and birds from Siberia have been found to show an antigenic response to KFD virus. Sequence based studies however note the distinctiveness of OHF.Early studies in India were conducted in collaboration with the US Army Medical Research Unit and this led to controversy and conspiracy theories.

kyasanur_forest_disease

Subsequent studies based on sequencing found that the Alkhurma virus, found in Saudi Arabia is closely related. In 1989 a patient in Nanjianin, China was found with fever symptoms and in 2009 its viral gene sequence was found to exactly match with that of the KFD reference virus of 1957. This has however been questioned since the Indian virus shows variations in sequence over time and the exact match with the virus sequence of 1957 and the Chinese virus of 1989 is not expected.

flaviviridae

This study also found using immune response tests that birds and humans in the region appeared to have been exposed to the virus.Another study has suggested that the virus is recent in origin dating the nearest common ancestor of it and related viruses to around 1942, based on the estimated rate of sequence substitutions. The study also raises the possibility of bird involvement in long-distance transfer. It appears that these viruses diverged 700 years ago.

10. Dengue Fever is a constant threat. If you’re planning a holiday in the tropics, get informed about dengue. Transmitted by mosquitoes, dengue affects between 50 and 100 million people a year in popular holiday destinations such as Thailand and India. But it’s more of a problem for the 2 billion people who live in areas that are threatened by dengue fever.

25,000 Deaths a year Also known as ‘breakbone fever’ due to the extreme pain felt during fever, is an relatively new disease caused by one of four closely-related viruses. WHO estimates that a whopping 2.5 billion people (two fifths of the World’s population) are at risk from dengue. It puts the total number of infections at around 50 million per year, and is now epidemic in more than 100 countries.


Dengue viruses are transferred to humans through the bites of infective female Aedes mosquitoes. The dengue virus circulates in the blood of a human for two to seven days, during the same time they have the fever. It usually appears first on the lower limbs and the chest; in some patients, it spreads to cover most of the body. There may also be severe retro-orbital pain, (a pain from behind the eyes that is distinctive to Dengue infections), and gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting coffee-grounds-like congealed blood, or severe diarrhea.

The leading cause of death in the tropics and subtropics is the infection brought on by the dengue virus, which causes a high fever, severe headache, and, in the worst cases, hemorrhaging. The good news is that it’s treatable and not contagious. The bad news is there’s no vaccine, and you can get it easily from the bite of an infected mosquito—which puts at least a third of the world’s human population at risk. The CDC estimates that there are over 100 million cases of dengue fever each year. It’s a great marketing tool for bug spray.

11. HIV 3.1 Million Lives a Year Human Immunodeficiency Virus has claimed the lives of more than 25 million people since 1981. HIV gets to the immune system by infecting important cells, including helper cells called CD4+ T cells, plus macrophanges and dendritic cells. Once the virus has taken hold, it systematically kills these cells, damaging the infected person’s immunity and leaving them more at risk from infections.

The majority of people infected with HIV go on to develop AIDS. Once a patient has AIDS common infections and tumours normally controlled by the CD4+ T cells start to affect the person.  
In the latter stages of the disease, pneumonia and various types of herpes can infect the patient and cause death.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The term HIV/AIDS represents the entire range of disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus from early infection to late stage symptoms. During the initial infection, a person may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. This is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the illness progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections and tumors that do not usually affect people who have working immune systems.

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HIV is transmitted primarily via unprotected sexual intercourse (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Prevention of HIV infection, primarily through safe sex and needle-exchange programs, is a key strategy to control the spread of the disease. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. While antiretroviral treatment reduces the risk of death and complications from the disease, these medications are expensive and have side effects. Without treatment, the average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.

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Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. AIDS was first recognized by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause—HIV infection—was identified in the early part of the decade. Since its discovery, AIDS has caused an estimated 36 million deaths worldwide (as of 2012). As of 2012, approximately 35.3 million people are living with HIV globally. HIV/AIDS is considered a pandemic—a disease outbreak which is present over a large area and is actively spreading.

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HIV/AIDS has had a great impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination. The disease also has significant economic impacts. There are many misconceptions about HIV/AIDS such as the belief that it can be transmitted by casual non-sexual contact. The disease has also become subject to many controversies involving religion. It has attracted international medical and political attention as well as large-scale funding since it was identified in the 1980s

 

12. Rotavirus 61,000 Lives a Year  According to the WHO, this merciless virus causes the deaths of more than half a million children every year. In fact, by the age of five, virtually every child on the planet has been infected with the virus at least once. Immunity builds up with each infection, so subsequent infections are milder. However, in areas where adequate healthcare is limited the disease is often fatal. Rotavirus infection usually occurs through ingestion of contaminated stool.

Because the virus is able to live a long time outside of the host, transmission can occur through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or by coming into direct contact with contaminated surfaces, then putting hands in the mouth.
Once it’s made its way in, the rotavirus infects the cells that line the small intestine and multiplies. It emits an enterotoxin, which gives rise to gastroenteritis.

13. Smallpox   Officially eradicated – Due to it’s long history, it impossible to estimate the carnage over the millennia Smallpox localizes in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin, this results in a characteristic maculopapular rash, and later, raised fluid-filled blisters. It has an overall mortality rate of 30–35%. Smallpox is believed to have emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC. The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans per year during the closing years of the 18th century (including five reigning monarchs), and was responsible for a third of all blindness. Of all those infected, 20–60%—and over 80% of infected children—died from the disease.
Smallpox was responsible for an estimated 300–500 million deaths during the 20th century alone. In the early 1950s an estimated 50 million cases of smallpox occurred in the world each year.

As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year. After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in December 1979.
Smallpox is one of only two infectious diseases to have been eradicated by humans, the other being Rinderpest, which was unofficially declared eradicated in October 2010.

The virus that causes smallpox wiped out hundreds of millions of people worldwide over thousands of years. We can’t even blame it on animals either, as the virus is only carried by and contagious for humans. There are several different types of smallpox disease that result from an infection ranging from mild to fatal, but it is generally marked by a fever, rash, and blistering, oozing pustules that develop on the skin. Fortunately, smallpox was declared eradicated in 1979, as the result of successful worldwide implementation of the vaccine.

14. Hepatitis B  521,000 Deaths a Year A third of the World’s population (over 2 billion people) has come in contact with this virus, including 350 million chronic carriers. In China and other parts of Asia, up to 10% of the adult population is chronically infected. The symptoms of acute hepatitis B include yellowing of the skin of eyes, dark urine, vomiting, nausea, extreme fatigue, and abdominal pain.

Luckily, more than 95% of people who contract the virus as adults or older children will make a full recovery and develop immunity to the disease. In other people, however, hepatitis B can bring on chronic liver failure due to cirrhosis or cancer.

Hepatitis B is an infectious illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects hominoidea, including humans. It was originally known as "serum hepatitis". Many people have no symptoms during the initial infected. Some develop an acute illness with vomiting, yellow skin, dark urine and abdominal pain. Often these symptoms last a few weeks and rarely result in death. It may take 30 to 180 days for symptoms to begin. Less than 10% of those infected develop chronic hepatitis B. In those with chronic disease cirrhosis and liver cancer may eventually develop.

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The virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious blood or body fluidsInfection around the time of birth is the most common way the disease is acquired in areas of the world where is common. In areas where the disease is uncommon intravenous drug use and sex are the most common routes of infection. Other risk factors include working in a healthcare setting, blood transfusions, dialysis, sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected person, travel in countries where it is common, and living in an institution.

Tattooing and acupuncture led to a significant number of cases in the 1980s; however, this has become less common with improved sterility. The hepatitis B viruses cannot be spread by holding hands, sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses, kissing, hugging, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding.  The hepatitis B virus is a hepadnavirushepa from hepatotropic (attracted to the liver) and dna because it is a DNA virus. The viruses replicate through an RNA intermediate form by reverse transcription, which in practice relates them to retroviruses.It is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV.

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The infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982. During the initial infected care is based on the symptoms present. In those who developed chronic disease antiviral medication such as tenofovir or interferon maybe useful, however are expensive.

About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives, including 350 million who are chronic carriers. Over 750,000 people die of hepatitis B a year. The disease has caused outbreaks in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is now only common in China. Between 5 and 10% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia have chronic disease. Research is in progress to create edible HBV vaccines in foods such as potatoes, carrots, and bananas.In 2004, an estimated 350 million individuals were infected worldwide. National and regional prevalence ranges from over 10% in Asia to under 0.5% in the United States and northern Europe. Routes of infection include vertical transmission (such as through childbirth), early life horizontal transmission (bites, lesions, and sanitary habits), and adult horizontal transmission (sexual contact, intravenous drug use).

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The primary method of transmission reflects the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in a given area. In low prevalence areas such as the continental United States and Western Europe, injection drug abuse and unprotected sex are the primary methods, although other factors may also be important. In moderate prevalence areas, which include Eastern Europe, Russia, and Japan, where 2–7% of the population is chronically infected, the disease is predominantly spread among children. In high-prevalence areas such as China and South East Asia, transmission during childbirth is most common, although in other areas of high endemicity such as Africa, transmission during childhood is a significant factor. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in areas of high endemicity is at least 8% with 10-15% prevalence in Africa/Far East. As of 2010, China has 120 million infected people, followed by India and Indonesia with 40 million and 12 million, respectively. According to World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 600,000 people die every year related to the infection. In the United States about 19,000 new cases occurred in 2011 down nearly 90% from 1990.

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Acute infection with hepatitis B virus is associated with acute viral hepatitis – an illness that begins with general ill-health, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, and dark urine, and then progresses to development of jaundice. It has been noted that itchy skin has been an indication as a possible symptom of all hepatitis virus types. The illness lasts for a few weeks and then gradually improves in most affected people. A few people may have more severe liver disease (fulminant hepatic failure), and may die as a result. The infection may be entirely asymptomatic and may go unrecognized.

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Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus either may be asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis), leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years. This type of infection dramatically increases the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). Across Europe hepatitis B and C cause approximately 50% of hepatocellular carcinomas. Chronic carriers are encouraged to avoid consuming alcohol as it increases their risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis B virus has been linked to the development of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN).

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Symptoms outside of the liver are present in 1–10% of HBV-infected people and include serum-sickness–like syndrome, acute necrotizing vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa), membranous glomerulonephritis, and papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti–Crosti syndrome). The serum-sickness–like syndrome occurs in the setting of acute hepatitis B, often preceding the onset of jaundice. The clinical features are fever, skin rash, and polyarteritis. The symptoms often subside shortly after the onset of jaundice, but can persist throughout the duration of acute hepatitis B.  About 30–50% of people with acute necrotizing vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa) are HBV carriers. HBV-associated nephropathy has been described in adults but is more common in children.Membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common form. Other immune-mediated hematological disorders, such as essential mixed cryoglobulinemia and aplastic anemia.

15. Influenza 500,000 Deaths a Year Influenza has been a prolific killer for centuries. The symptoms of influenza were first described more than 2,400 years ago by Hippocrates. Pandemics generally occur three times a century, and can cause millions of deaths. The most fatal pandemic on record was the Spanish flu outbreak in 1918, which caused between 20 million and 100 million deaths. In order to invade a host, the virus shell includes proteins that bind themselves to receptors on the outside of cells in the lungs and air passages of the victim. Once the virus has latched itself onto the cell it takes over so much of its machinery that the cell dies. Dead cells in the airways cause a runny nose and sore throat. Too many dead cells in the lungs causes death.

 
Vaccinations against the flu are common in developed countries. However, a vaccination that is effective one year may not necessarily work the next year, due to the way the rate at which a flu virus evolves and the fact that new strains will soon replace older ones. No virus can claim credit for more worldwide pandemics and scares than influenza.

The outbreak of the Spanish flu in 1918 is generally considered to be one of the worst pandemics in human history, infecting 20 to 40 percent of the world’s population and killing 50 million in the span of just two years. (A reconstruction of that virus is above.) The swine flu was its most recent newsmaker, when a 2009 pandemic may have seen as many as 89 million people infected worldwide.

Effective influenza vaccines exist, and most people easily survive infections. But the highly infectious respiratory illness is cunning—the virus is constantly mutating and creating new strains. Thousands of strains exist at any given time, many of them harmless, and vaccines available in the U.S. cover only about 40 percent of the strains at large each year.

16. Hepatitis C  56,000 Deaths a Year An estimated 200-300 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C.

 

Most people infected with hepatitis C don’t have any symptoms and feel fine for years. However, liver damage invariably rears its ugly head over time, often decades after first infection. In fact, 70% of those infected develop chronic liver disease, 15% are struck with cirrhosis and 5% can die from liver cancer or cirrhosis. In the USA, hepatitis C is the primary reason for liver transplants.

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Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure, liver cancer, or life-threatening esophageal and gastric varices.

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HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, and transfusions. An estimated 150–200 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C. The existence of hepatitis C (originally identifiable only as a type of non-A non-B hepatitis) was suggested in the 1970s and proven in 1989. Hepatitis C infects only humans and chimpanzees.

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The virus persists in the liver in about 85% of those infected. This chronic infection can be treated with medication: the standard therapy is a combination of peginterferon and ribavirin, with either boceprevir or telaprevir added in some cases. Overall, 50–80% of people treated are cured. Those who develop cirrhosis or liver cancer may require a liver transplant. Hepatitis C is the leading reason for liver transplantation, though the virus usually recurs after transplantation. No vaccine against hepatitis C is available.

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Hepatitis C infection causes acute symptoms in 15% of cases. Symptoms are generally mild and vague, including a decreased appetite, fatigue, nausea, muscle or joint pains, and weight loss and rarely does acute liver failure result. Most cases of acute infection are not associated with jaundice. The infection resolves spontaneously in 10–50% of cases, which occurs more frequently in individuals who are young and female.

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About 80% of those exposed to the virus develop a chronic infection.  This is defined as the presence of detectable viral replication for at least six months. Most experience minimal or no symptoms during the initial few decades of the infection.Chronic hepatitis C can be associated with fatigue and mild cognitive problems. Chronic infection after several years may cause cirrhosis or liver cancer. The liver enzymes are normal in 7–53%.  Late relapses after apparent cure have been reported, but these can be difficult to distinguish from reinfection.

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Fatty changes to the liver occur in about half of those infected and are usually present before cirrhosis develops.  Usually (80% of the time) this change affects less than a third of the liver. Worldwide hepatitis C is the cause of 27% of cirrhosis cases and 25% of hepatocellular carcinoma.  About 10–30% of those infected develop cirrhosis over 30 years. Cirrhosis is more common in those also infected with hepatitis B, schistosoma, or HIV, in alcoholics and in those of male gender. In those with hepatitis C, excess alcohol increases the risk of developing cirrhosis 100-fold.Those who develop cirrhosis have a 20-fold greater risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. This transformation occurs at a rate of 1–3% per year.  Being infected with hepatitis B in additional to hepatitis C increases this risk further.

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Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal hypertension, ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen), easy bruising or bleeding, varices (enlarged veins, especially in the stomach and esophagus), jaundice, and a syndrome of cognitive impairment known as hepatic encephalopathy. Ascites occurs at some stage in more than half of those who have a chronic infection.

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The most common problem due to hepatitis C but not involving the liver is mixed cryoglobulinemia (usually the type II form) — an inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels. Hepatitis C is also associated with Sjögren’s syndrome (an autoimmune disorder); thrombocytopenia; lichen planus; porphyria cutanea tarda; necrolytic acral erythema; insulin resistance; diabetes mellitus; diabetic nephropathy; autoimmune thyroiditis and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.  Thrombocytopenia is estimated to occur in 0.16% to 45.4% of people with chronic hepatitis C. 20–30% of people infected have rheumatoid factor — a type of antibody. Possible associations include Hyde’s prurigo nodularis and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Cardiomyopathy with associated arrhythmias has also been reported. A variety of central nervous system disorders have been reported.  Chronic infection seems to be associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer.

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Persons who have been infected with hepatitis C may appear to clear the virus but remain infected. The virus is not detectable with conventional testing but can be found with ultra-sensitive tests.The original method of detection was by demonstrating the viral genome within liver biopsies, but newer methods include an antibody test for the virus’ core protein and the detection of the viral genome after first concentrating the viral particles by ultracentrifugation. A form of infection with persistently moderately elevated serum liver enzymes but without antibodies to hepatitis C has also been reported. This form is known as cryptogenic occult infection.

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Several clinical pictures have been associated with this type of infection. It may be found in people with anti-hepatitis-C antibodies but with normal serum levels of liver enzymes; in antibody-negative people with ongoing elevated liver enzymes of unknown cause; in healthy populations without evidence of liver disease; and in groups at risk for HCV infection including those on haemodialysis or family members of people with occult HCV. The clinical relevance of this form of infection is under investigation. The consequences of occult infection appear to be less severe than with chronic infection but can vary from minimal to hepatocellular carcinoma.

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The rate of occult infection in those apparently cured is controversial but appears to be low 40% of those with hepatitis but with both negative hepatitis C serology and the absence of detectable viral genome in the serum have hepatitis C virus in the liver on biopsy.How commonly this occurs in children is unknown.
There is no cure, no vaccine.

17. Measle  197,000 Deaths a Year Measles, also known as Rubeola, has done a pretty good job of killing people throughout the ages. Over the last 150 years, the virus has been responsible for the deaths of around 200 million people. The fatality rate from measles for otherwise healthy people in developed countries is 3 deaths per thousand cases, or 0.3%. In underdeveloped nations with high rates of malnutrition and poor healthcare, fatality rates have been as high as 28%. In immunocompromised patients (e.g. people with AIDS) the fatality rate is approximately 30%.

During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii’s people. In 1875, measles killed over 40,000 Fijians, approximately one-third of the population. In the 19th century, the disease decimated the Andamanese population. In 1954, the virus causing the disease was isolated from an 11-year old boy from the United States, David Edmonston, and adapted and propagated on chick embryo tissue culture.


To date, 21 strains of the measles virus have been identified.

18. Yellow Fever  30,000 Deaths a Year. Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes and is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The only known hosts of the virus are primates and several species of mosquito. The origin of the disease is most likely to be Africa, from where it was introduced to South America through the slave trade in the 16th century. Since the 17th century, several major epidemics of the disease have been recorded in the Americas, Africa and Europe. In the 19th century, yellow fever was deemed one of the most dangerous infectious diseases.

Yellow fever presents in most cases with fever, nausea, and pain and it generally subsides after several days. In some patients, a toxic phase follows, in which liver damage with jaundice (giving the name of the disease) can occur and lead to death. Because of the increased bleeding tendency (bleeding diathesis), yellow fever belongs to the group of hemorrhagic fevers.

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Since the 1980s, the number of cases of yellow fever has been increasing, making it a reemerging disease Transmitted through infected mosquitoes, Yellow Fever is still a serious problem in countries all over the world and a serious health risk for travelers to Africa, South America and some areas in the Caribbean.  Fatality rates range from 15 to over 50%. Symptoms include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting and nausea.

Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic fever transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The yellow is in reference to the yellow color (jaundice) that affects some patients. The virus is endemic in tropical areas in Africa and South America.

The disease typically occurs in two phases. The first phase typically causes fever, headache, muscle pain and back pain, chills and nausea. Most patients recover from these symptoms while 15% progresses to the toxic second phase. High fever returns, jaundice becomes apparent, patient complains of abdominal pain with vomiting, and bleeding in the mouth, eyes, nose or stomach occurs. Blood appears in the stool or vomit and kidney function deteriorates. 50% of the patients that enter the toxic phase die within 10 to 14 days.

There is no treatment for yellow fever. Patients are only given supportive care for fever, dehydration and respiratory failure. Yellow fever is preventable through vaccination.

19. Rabies  55,000 Deaths a Year Rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. If there wasn’t a vaccine, this would be the most deadly virus on the list.

It is a zoonotic virus transmitted through the bite of an animal. The virus worms its way into the brain along the peripheral nerves. The incubation phase of the rabies disease can take up to several months, depending on how far it has to go to reach the central nervous system. It provokes acute pain, violent movements, depression, uncontrollable excitement, and inability to swallow water (rabies is often known as ‘hydrophobia’). After these symptoms subside the fun really starts as the infected person experiences periods of mania followed by coma then death, usually caused by respiratory insufficiency.

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Rabies has a long and storied history dating back to 2300 B.C., with records of Babylonians who went mad and died after being bitten by dogs. While this virus itself is a beast, the sickness it causes is now is wholly preventable if treated immediately with a series of vaccinations (sometimes delivered with a terrifyingly huge needle in the abdomen). We have vaccine inventor Louis Pasteur to thank for that.

Exposure to rabies these days, while rare in the U.S., still occurs as it did thousands of years ago—through bites from infected animals. If left untreated after exposure, the virus attacks the central nervous system and death usually results. The symptoms of an advanced infection include delirium, hallucinations and raging, violent behavior in some cases, which some have argued makes rabies eerily similar to zombification. If rabies ever became airborne, we might actually have to prepare for that zombie apocalypse after all.

21. Common Cold  No known cure The common cold is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with on average two to four infections a year in adults and up to 6–12 in children. Collectively, colds, influenza, and other infections with similar symptoms are included in the diagnosis of influenza-like illness.

They may also be termed upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Influenza involves the lungs while the common cold does not.
It’s annoying as hell, but there’s nothing to do but wave the white flag on this one.
Virus: Infinity. People: 0

22. Anthrax  Anthrax is a diseased caused by a bacterium called Bacillus Anthracis. There are three types of anthrax, skin, lung, and digestive. Anthrax has lately become a major world issue for its ability to become an epidemic and spread quickly and easily among people through contact with spores.

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It is important to know that  Anthrax is not spread from person to person, but is through contact/handling of products containing spores. Flu like symptoms, nausea, and blisters are common symptoms of exposure. Inhalational anthrax and gastrointestinal anthrax are serious issue because of their high mortality rates ranging from 50 to 100%.

Anthrax is a severe infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. This type of bacteria produces spores that can live for years in the soil. Anthrax is more common in farm animals, though humans can get infected as well. Anthrax is not contagious. A person can get infected only when the bacteria gets into the skin, lungs or  digestive tract.

There are three types of anthrax: skin anthrax, inhalation anthrax and gastrointestinal anthrax. Skin anthrax symptoms include fever, muscle aches, headache, nausea and vomiting. Inhalation anthrax begins with flu-like symptoms, which progresses  with severe respiratory distress. Shock, coma and then death follows. Most patients do not recover even if given appropriate antibiotics due to the toxins released by the anthrax bacteria. Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms include fever, nausea, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea.

Anthrax is treated with antibiotics.

23. Malaria  Malaria is a mosquito-borne illness caused by parasite. Although malaria can be prevented and treated, it is often fatal.

Malaria

Each year about 1 million people die from Malaria.  Common symptoms include fever, chills, headache. Sweats, and fatigue. Malaria is a serious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that infects Anopheles mosquitoes which feeds on humans. Initial symptoms include high fever, shaking chills, headache and vomiting – symptoms that may be too  mild to be identified as malaria. If not treated within 24 hours, it can progress to severe illnesses that could lead to death.

The WHO estimates that malaria caused 207,000,000 clinical episodes and 627,000 deaths, mostly among African children,  in 2012. About 3.5 billion people from 167 countries live in areas at risk of malaria transmission.

24. Cholera  Due to the severe dehydration it causes, if left untreated Cholera can cause death within hours. In 1991 a major outbreak occurred in South America though currently few cases are known outside of Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting and leg cramping. Cholera is usually contracted through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholera. It has an incubation period of less than a day to five days and causes painless, watery diarrhea that quickly leads to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given.

Cholera remains a global problem and continues to be a challenge for countries where access to safe drinking water and sanitation is a problem.

25.  Typhoid Fever  Patients with typhoid fever sometimes demonstrate a rash of flat, rose-colored spots and a sustained fever of 103 to 104.

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Typhoid is contracted through contact with the S. Typhi bacteria, which is carried by humans in both their blood stream and stool. Over 400 cases occur in the US, 20% of those who contract it die. Typhoid fever is a serious and potentially fatal disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. This type of bacteria lives only in humans. People sick with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract and transmit the bacteria through their stool.

A person can get typhoid fever by drinking or eating food contaminated with Salmonella Typhi or if contaminated sewage gets into the water used for drinking or washing dishes.

Typhoid fever symptoms include high fever, weakness, headache, stomach pains or loss of appetite. Typhoid fever is determined by testing the presence of Salmonella Typhi in the stool or blood of an infected person. Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics.

26. SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and the MERS VIRUS A new Pneumonia disease that emerged in China in 2003. After news of the outbreak of SARS China tried to silence news about it both internal and international news , SARS spread rapidly, reaching neighboring countries Hong Kong and Vietnam in late February 2003, and then to other countries via international travelers.Canada Had a outbreak that was fairly well covered and cost Canada quite a bit financially

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The last case of this epidemic occurred in June 2003. In that outbreak, 8069 cases arise that killed 775 people. There is speculation that this disease is Man-Made SARS, SARS has symptoms of flu and may include: fever, cough, sore throat and other non-specific symptoms.

SuperBug-Virus

The only symptom that is common to all patients was fever above 38 degrees Celsius. Shortness of breath may occur later. There is currently no vaccine for the disease so that countermeasures can only assist the breathing apparatus. The virus was said to be the Virus of the End Times

27.  MERS(Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome) The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), also termed EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC/2012), is positive-sense, single-stranded RNA novel species of the genus Betacoronavirus.

MERS-CoV

First called novel coronavirus 2012 or simply novel coronavirus, it was first reported in 2012 after genome sequencing of a virus isolated from sputum samples from patients who fell ill in a 2012 outbreak of a new flu.

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As of June 2014, MERS-CoV cases have been reported in 22 countries, including Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Jordan, Qatar, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Algeria, Bangladesh, the Philippines (still MERS-free), Indonesia (none was confirmed), the United Kingdom, and the United States. Almost all cases are somehow linked to Saudi Arabia. In the same article it was reported that Saudi authorities’ errors in response to MERS-CoV were a contributing factor to the spread of this deadly virus.

27. Enterovirus (Brain Inflammation) Entero virus is a disease of the hands, feet and mouth, and we can not ignored occasional Brain Inflammation. Enterovirus attack symptoms are very similar to regular flu symptoms so its difficult to detect it, such as fever, sometimes accompanied by dizziness and weakness and pain.

Next will come the little red watery bumps on the palms and feet following oral thrush. In severe conditions, Enterovirus can attack the nerves and brain tissue to result in death.

The virus is easily spread through direct contact with patients. Children are the main victims of the spread of enterovirus in China. Since the first victim was found but reporting was delayed until several weeks later.

24 thousand people have contracted the enterovirus. More than 30 of them died mostly children. The virus is reported to have entered Indonesia and infecting three people in Sumatra.  2014Enterovirus 68 is presently spreading across North America mainly and started in the USA has probably spread to Canada and Mexico by now. Enterovirus 68’s spread is unprecedented up till now

28.  The Black Plague  The 1918 flu virus and HIV are the biggest killers of modern times. But back in the 14th century, the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, or the Black Death as it was also known, was the baddest bug of all. In just a few years, from 1347 to 1351, the plague killed off about 75,000,000 people worldwide, including one-third of the entire population of Europe at that time.

Carrying away the victims of plague

It spread through Asia, Italy, North Africa, Spain, Normandy, Switzerland, and eastward into Hungary. After a brief break, it crossed into England, Scotland, and then to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and Greenland.

the plague bacterium

Yersinia pestis, the plague bacteria
Courtesy of Neal Chamberlain

The plague bacterium is called Yersinia <yer-sin-ee-uh> pestis. There are two main forms of the disease. In the bubonic <boo-bah-nick> form, the bacteria cause painful swellings as large as an orange to form in the armpits, neck and groin. These swellings, or buboes, often burst open, oozing blood and pus. Blood vessels leak blood that puddles under the skin, giving the skin a blackened look. That’s why the disease became known as the Black Death. At least half of its victims die within a week.

The pneumonic <new-mon-ick> form of plague causes victims to sweat heavily and cough up blood that starts filling their lungs. Almost no one survived it during the plague years. Yersinia pestis is the deadliest microbe we’ve ever known, although HIV might catch up to it. Yersinia pestis is still around in the world. Fortunately, with bacteria-killing antibiotics and measures to control the pests—rats and mice—that spread the bacteria, we’ve managed to conquer this killer.

29. Human Papillomavirus  Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Like all papillomaviruses, HPVs establish productive infections only in keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes.

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Most HPV infections are subclinical and will cause no physical symptoms; however, in some people subclinical infections will become clinical and may cause benign papillomas (such as warts [verrucae] or squamous cell papilloma), or cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus.HPV has been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, HPV 16 and 18 infections are a cause of a unique type of oropharyngeal (throat) cancer and are believed to cause 70% of cervical cancer, which have available vaccines, see HPV vaccine.

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More than 30 to 40 types of HPV are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Some sexually transmitted HPV types may cause genital warts. Persistent infection with "high-risk" HPV types—different from the ones that cause skin warts—may progress to precancerous lesions and invasive cancer. High-risk HPV infection is a cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer.However, most infections do not cause disease.

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Seventy percent of clinical HPV infections, in young men and women, may regress to subclinical in one year and ninety percent in two years. However, when the subclinical infection persists—in 5% to 10% of infected women—there is high risk of developing precancerous lesions of the vulva and cervix, which can progress to invasive cancer. Progression from subclinical to clinical infection may take years; providing opportunities for detection and treatment of pre-cancerous lesions.

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In more developed countries, cervical screening using a Papanicolaou (Pap) test or liquid-based cytology is used to detect abnormal cells that may develop into cancer. If abnormal cells are found, women are invited to have a colposcopy. During a colposcopic inspection, biopsies can be taken and abnormal areas can be removed with a simple procedure, typically with a cauterizing loop or, more commonly in the developing world—by freezing (cryotherapy).

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Treating abnormal cells in this way can prevent them from developing into cervical cancer. Pap smears have reduced the incidence and fatalities of cervical cancer in the developed world, but even so there were 11,000 cases and 3,900 deaths in the U.S. in 2008. Cervical cancer has substantial mortality worldwide, there are an estimated 490,000 cases and 270,000 deaths each year.

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It is true that infections caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are not fatal, but chronic infection may result in cervical cancer. Apparently, HPV is responsible for almost all cervical cancers (approx. 99%). HPV results in 275,000 deaths per year.

30. Henipaviruses The genus Henipavirus comprises of 3 members which are Hendra virus (HeV), Nipah virus (NiV), and Cedar virus (CedPV). The second one was introduced in the middle of 2012, although affected no human, and is therefore considered harmless. The rest of the two viruses, however, are lethal with mortality rate up to 50-100%.

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Hendra virus (originally Equine morbillivirus) was discovered in September 1994 when it caused the deaths of thirteen horses, and a trainer at a training complex in Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane in Queensland, Australia.

The index case, a mare, was housed with 19 other horses after falling ill, and died two days later. Subsequently, all of the horses became ill, with 13 dying. The remaining 6 animals were subsequently euthanized as a way of preventing relapsing infection and possible further transmission.The trainer, Victory (‘Vic’) Rail, and a stable hand were involved in nursing the index case, and both fell ill with an influenza-like illness within one week of the first horse’s death. The stable hand recovered while Mr Rail died of respiratory and renal failure. The source of the virus was most likely frothy nasal discharge from the index case.

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A second outbreak occurred in August 1994 (chronologically preceding the first outbreak) in Mackay 1,000 km north of Brisbane resulting in the deaths of two horses and their owner. The owner, Mark Preston, assisted in necropsies of the horses and within three weeks was admitted to hospital suffering from meningitis. Mr Preston recovered, but 14 months later developed neurologic signs and died. This outbreak was diagnosed retrospectively by the presence of Hendra virus in the brain of the patient.pathogens-02-00264-g002-1024

A survey of wildlife in the outbreak areas was conducted, and identified pteropid fruit bats as the most likely source of Hendra virus, with a seroprevalence of 47%. All of the other 46 species sampled were negative. Virus isolations from the reproductive tract and urine of wild bats indicated that transmission to horses may have occurred via exposure to bat urine or birthing fluids.  However, the only attempt at experimental infection reported in the literature, conducted at CSIRO Geelong, did not result in infection of a horse from infected flying foxes. This study looked at potential infection between bats, horses and cats, in various combinations. The only species that was able to infect horses was the cat (Felix spp.)

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Nipah virus was identified in April 1999, when it caused an outbreak of neurological and respiratory disease on pig farms in peninsular Malaysia, resulting in 257 human cases, including 105 human deaths and the culling of one million pigs.  In Singapore, 11 cases, including one death, occurred in abattoir workers exposed to pigs imported from the affected Malaysian farms. The Nipah virus has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a Category C agent. The name "Nipah" refers to the place, Kampung Baru Sungai Nipah in Negeri Sembilan State, Malaysia, the source of the human case from which Nipah virus was first isolated.

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The outbreak was originally mistaken for Japanese encephalitis (JE), however, physicians in the area noted that persons who had been vaccinated against JE were not protected, and the number of cases among adults was unusual Despite the fact that these observations were recorded in the first month of the outbreak, the Ministry of Health failed to react accordingly, and instead launched a nationwide campaign to educate people on the dangers of JE and its vector, Culex mosquitoes.

CSIRO_ScienceImage_24_The_Nipah_virus

Symptoms of infection from the Malaysian outbreak were primarily encephalitic in humans and respiratory in pigs. Later outbreaks have caused respiratory illness in humans, increasing the likelihood of human-to-human transmission and indicating the existence of more dangerous strains of the virus. Based on seroprevalence data and virus isolations, the primary reservoir for Nipah virus was identified as Pteropid fruit bats, including Pteropus vampyrus (Large Flying Fox), and Pteropus hypomelanus (Small flying fox), both of which occur in Malaysia.

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The transmission of Nipah virus from flying foxes to pigs is thought to be due to an increasing overlap between bat habitats and piggeries in peninsular Malaysia. At the index farm, fruit orchards were in close proximity to the piggery, allowing the spillage of urine, feces and partially eaten fruit onto the pigs. Retrospective studies demonstrate that viral spillover into pigs may have been occurring in Malaysia since 1996 without detection. During 1998, viral spread was aided by the transfer of infected pigs to other farms, where new outbreaks occurred.

sn-virus

Cedar Virus (CedPV) was first identified in pteropid urine during work on Hendra virus undertaken in Queensland in 2009. Although the virus is reported to be very similar to both Hendra and Nipah, it does not cause illness in laboratory animals usually susceptible to paramyxoviruses. Animals were able to mount an effective response and create effective antibodies.3273481_pone.0027918.g003

The scientists who identified the virus report:

Hendra and Nipah viruses are 2 highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses that have emerged from bats within the last two decades. Both are capable of causing fatal disease in both humans and many mammal species. Serological and molecular evidence for henipa-like viruses have been reported from numerous locations including Asia and Africa, however, until now no successful isolation of these viruses have been reported. This paper reports the isolation of a novel paramyxovirus, named Cedar virus, from fruit bats in Australia. Full genome sequencing of this virus suggests a close relationship with the henipaviruses.
 
featured-image-2
 
Antibodies to Cedar virus were shown to cross react with, but not cross neutralize Hendra or Nipah virus. Despite this close relationship, when Cedar virus was tested in experimental challenge models in ferrets and guinea pigs, we identified virus replication and generation of neutralizing antibodies, but no clinical disease was observed. As such, this virus provides a useful reference for future reverse genetics experiments to determine the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of the henipaviruses.

30. Lyssaviruses  This genus comprises of not only rabies virus (causing death of almost everyone who is infected) but certain other viruses such as Duvenhage virus, Mokola virus, and Australian bat lyssavirus. Although small number of cases are reported, but the ones reported have always been fatal. Bats are vectors for all of these types except for Mokola virus.

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Lyssavirus (from Lyssa, the Greek goddess of madness, rage, and frenzy) is a genus of viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, in the order Mononegavirales. This group of RNA viruses includes the rabies virus traditionally associated with the disease. Viruses typically have either helical or cubic symmetry. Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, so their infectious particles are approximately cylindrical in shape. This is typical of plant-infecting viruses. Human-infecting viruses more commonly have cubic symmetry and take shapes approximating regular polyhedra. The structure consists of a spiked outer envelope, a middle region consisting of matrix protein M, and an inner ribonucleocapsid complex region, consisting of the genome associated with other proteins.

photo1

Lyssavirus genome consists of a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes five viral proteins: polymerase L, matrix protein M, phosphoprotein P, nucleoprotein N, and glycoprotein G.

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Based on recent phylogenetic evidence, lyssa viruses are categorized into seven major species. In addition, five species recently have been discovered: West Caucasian bat virus, Aravan virus, Khuj and virus, Irkut virus and Shimoni bat virus. The major species include rabies virus (species 1), Lagos bat virus (species 2), Mokola virus (species 3), Duvenhage virus (species 4), European Bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (species 5 and 6), and Australian bat lyssavirus (species 7).83980497

Based on biological properties of the viruses, these species are further subdivided into phylogroups 1 and 2. Phylogroup 1 includes genotypes 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7, while phylogroup 2 includes genotypes 2 and 3. The nucleocapsid region of lyssavirus is fairly highly conserved from genotype to genotype across both phylogroups; however, experimental data have shown the lyssavirus strains used in vaccinations are only from the first species(i.e. classic rabies).

31. Tuberculosis  Mucous, fever, fatigue, excessive sweating and weight loss. What do they all have in common?

tuberculosis1

They are symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, or TB. TB is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs, but it may spread to other organs. The symptoms of this disease can remain stagnant for years or affect the person right away. People at higher risk for contracting TB include the elderly, infants and those with weakened immune systems due to other diseases, such as AIDS or diabetes, or even individuals who have undergone chemotherapy.

Being around others who may have TB, maintaining a poor diet or living in unsanitary conditions are all risk factors for contracting TB. In the United States, there are approximately 10 cases of TB per 100,000 people. Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, and in many cases fatal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air. Most infections do not have symptoms, known as latent tuberculosis. About one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected.

tuberculosis_incidence_global_2011

The classic symptoms of active TB infection are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss (the latter giving rise to the formerly common term for the disease, "consumption"). Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of body fluids.

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Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or blood tests. Treatment is difficult and requires administration of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Social contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infections. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.

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One-third of the world’s population is thought to have been infected with M. tuberculosis, with new infections occurring in about 1% of the population each year.In 2007, an estimated 13.7 million chronic cases were active globally, while in 2010, an estimated 8.8 million new cases and 1.5 million associated deaths occurred, mostly in developing countries. The absolute number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing since 2006, and new cases have decreased since 2002.

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The rate of tuberculosis in different areas varies across the globe; about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries tests positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5–10% of the United States population tests positive. More people in the developing world contract tuberculosis because of a poor immune system, largely due to high rates of HIV infection and the corresponding development of AIDS.

32. Encephalitis Virus Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. Victims are usually exposed to viruses resulting in encephalitis by insect bites or food and drink. The most frequently encountered agents are arboviruses (carried by mosquitoes or ticks) and enteroviruses ( coxsackievirus, poliovirus and echovirus ). Some of the less frequent agents are measles, rabies, mumps, varicella and herpes simplex viruses.

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Patients with encephalitis suffer from fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, drowsiness and photophobia. The symptoms of encephalitis are caused by brain’s defense mechanisms being activated to get rid of infection (brain swelling, small bleedings and cell death). Neurologic examination usually reveals a stiff neck due to the irritation of the meninges covering the brain. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluidCerebrospinal fluid CSF in short, is the clear fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space (the space between the skull and cortex of the brain). It acts as a "cushion" or buffer for the cortex.

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Also, CSF occupies the ventricular system of the brain and the obtained by a lumbar puncture In medicine, a lumbar puncture (colloquially known as a spinal tap is a diagnostic procedure that is done to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for biochemical, microbiological and cytological analysis. Indications The most common indication for procedure reveals increased amounts of proteins and white blood cells with normal glucose. A CT scan examination is performed to reveal possible complications of brain swelling, brain abscess Brain abscess (or cerebral abscess) is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material coming from local (ear infection, infection of paranasal sinuses, infection of the mastoid air cells of the temporal bone, epidural abscess) or re or bleeding. Lumbar puncture procedure is performed only after the possibility of a prominent brain swelling is excluded by a CT scan examination.

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What are the main Symptoms?
Some patients may have symptoms of a cold or stomach infection before encephalitis symptoms begin.
When a case of encephalitis is not very severe, the symptoms may be similar to those of other illnesses, including:
• Fever that is not very high
• Mild headache
• Low energy and a poor appetite
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Other symptoms include:
• Clumsiness, unsteady gait
• Confusion, disorientation
• Drowsiness
• Irritability or poor temper control
• Light sensitivity
• Stiff neck and back (occasionally)
• Vomiting
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Symptoms in newborns and younger infants may not be as easy to recognize:
• Body stiffness
• Irritability and crying more often (these symptoms may get worse when the baby is picked up)
• Poor feeding
• Soft spot on the top of the head may bulge out more
• Vomiting
Encephalitis

• Loss of consciousness, poor responsiveness, stupor, coma
• Muscle weakness or paralysis
• Seizures
• Severe headache
• Sudden change in mental functions:
• "Flat" mood, lack of mood, or mood that is inappropriate for the situation
• Impaired judgment
• Inflexibility, extreme self-centeredness, inability to make a decision, or withdrawal from social interaction
• Less interest in daily activities
• Memory loss (amnesia), impaired short-term or long-term memory

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Children and adults should avoid contact with anyone who has encephalitis.
Controlling mosquitoes (a mosquito bite can transmit some viruses) may reduce the chance of some infections that can lead to encephalitis.
• Apply an insect repellant containing the chemical, DEET when you go outside (but never use DEET products on infants younger than 2 months).
• Remove any sources of standing water (such as old tires, cans, gutters, and wading pools).
• Wear long-sleeved shirts and pants when outside, particularly at dusk.
Vaccinate animals to prevent encephalitis caused by the rabies virus.

 

33. Chicken Pox Virus Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).It usually starts with a vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than on the limbs. The rash develops into itchy, raw pockmarks, which mostly heal without scarring. On examination, the observer typically finds skin lesions at various stages of healing and also ulcers in the oral cavity and tonsil areas. The disease is most commonly observed in children.

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Chickenpox is an airborne disease which spreads easily through coughing or sneezing by ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash. A person with chickenpox is infectious one to two days before the rash appears. They remain contagious until all lesions have crusted over (this takes approximately six days). Immunocompromised patients are contagious during the entire period as new lesions keep appearing. Crusted lesions are not contagious.Chickenpox has been observed in other primates, including chimpanzees and gorillas.

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The origin of the term chicken pox, which is recorded as being used since 1684,is not reliably known. It has been said to be a derived from chickpeas, based on resemblance of the vesicles to chickpeas, or to come from the rash resembling chicken pecks. Other suggestions include the designation chicken for a child (i.e., literally ‘child pox’), a corruption of itching-pox, or the idea that the disease may have originated in chickens. Samuel Johnson explained the designation as "from its being of no very great danger."

Chickenpox

The early (prodromal) symptoms in adolescents and adults are nausea, loss of appetite, aching muscles, and headache. This is followed by the characteristic rash or oral sores, malaise, and a low-grade fever that signal the presence of the disease. Oral manifestations of the disease (enanthem) not uncommonly may precede the external rash (exanthem). In children the illness is not usually preceded by prodromal symptoms, and the first sign is the rash or the spots in the oral cavity. The rash begins as small red dots on the face, scalp, torso, upper arms and legs; progressing over 10–12 hours to small bumps, blisters and pustules; followed by umbilication and the formation of scabs.

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At the blister stage, intense itching is usually present. Blisters may also occur on the palms, soles, and genital area. Commonly, visible evidence of the disease develops in the oral cavity & tonsil areas in the form of small ulcers which can be painful or itchy or both; this enanthem (internal rash) can precede the exanthem (external rash) by 1 to 3 days or can be concurrent. These symptoms of chickenpox appear 10 to 21 days after exposure to a contagious person. Adults may have a more widespread rash and longer fever, and they are more likely to experience complications, such as varicella pneumonia.Because watery nasal discharge containing live virus usually precedes both exanthem (external rash) and enanthem (oral ulcers) by 1 to 2 days, the infected person actually becomes contagious one to two days prior to recognition of the disease. Contagiousness persists until all vesicular lesions have become dry crusts (scabs), which usually entails four or five days, by which time nasal shedding of live virus also ceases.

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Chickenpox is rarely fatal, although it is generally more severe in adult men than in women or children. Non-immune pregnant women and those with a suppressed immune system are at highest risk of serious complications. Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) associated with chickenpox in the previous year accounts for nearly one third of childhood AIS. The most common late complication of chickenpox is shingles (herpes zoster), caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus decades after the initial, often childhood, chickenpox infection.

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Shingles  Herpes zoster After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body’s nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, but later in life, usually as an adult, it can be reactivated and cause a different form of the viral infection called shingles (scientifically known as herpes zoster). The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) suggests that any adult over the age of 60 years gets the herpes zoster vaccine as a part of their normal medical check ups.

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Many adults who have had chickenpox as children are susceptible to shingles as adults, often with the accompanying condition postherpetic neuralgia, a painful condition that makes it difficult to sleep. Even after the shingles rash has gone away, there can be night pain in the area affected by the rash.Shingles affects one in five adults infected with chickenpox as children, especially those who are immune suppressed, particularly from cancer, HIV, or other conditions.

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However, stress can bring on shingles as well, although scientists are still researching the connection.Shingles are most commonly found in adults over the age of 60 who were diagnosed with chickenpox when they were under the age of 1.A shingles vaccine is available for adults over 50 who have had childhood chickenpox or who have previously had shingles.

34. POXVIRUS  Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) are viruses that can, as a family, infect both vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

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Four genera of poxviruses may infect humans: orthopox, parapox, yatapox, molluscipox. Orthopox: smallpox virus (variola), vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, monkeypox virus; Parapox: orf virus, pseudocowpox, bovine papular stomatitis virus; Yatapox: tanapox virus, yaba monkey tumor virus; Molluscipox: molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV).The most common are vaccinia (seen on Indian subcontinent) and molluscum contagiousum, but monkeypox infections are rising (seen in west and central African rainforest countries). Camelpox is a disease of camels caused by a virus of the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and the genus Orthopoxvirus. It causes skin lesions and a generalized infection. Approximately 25% of young camels that become infected will die from the disease, while infection in older camels is generally more mild.

Poxvirus model in section (Pov_Ray)

The ancestor of the poxviruses is not known but structural studies suggest it may have been an adenovirus or a species related to both the poxviruses and the adenoviruses. Based on the genome organization and DNA replication mechanism it seems that phylogenetic relationships may exist between the rudiviruses (Rudiviridae) and the large eukaryal DNA viruses: the African swine fever virus (Asfarviridae), Chlorella viruses (Phycodnaviridae) and poxviruses (Poxviridae).The mutation rate in these genomes has been estimated to be 0.9-1.2 x 10−6 substitutions per site per year.A second estimate puts this rate at 0.5-7 × 10−6 nucleotide substitutions per site per year.  A third estimate places the rate at 4-6 × 10−6.

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The last common ancestor of the extant poxviruses that infect vertebrates existed 0.5 million years ago. The genus Avipoxvirus diverged from the ancestor 249 ± 69 thousand years ago. The ancestor of the genus Orthopoxvirus was next to diverge from the other clades at 0.3 million years ago. A second estimate of this divergence time places this event at 166,000 ± 43,000 years ago. The division of the Orthopox into the extant genera occurred ~14,000 years ago. The genus Leporipoxvirus diverged ~137,000 ± 35,000 years ago. This was followed by the ancestor of the genus Yatapoxvirus. The last common ancestor of the Capripoxvirus and Suipoxvirus diverged 111,000 ± 29,000 years ago.

Poxvirus Pov-Ray model 2

A model of a poxvirus cut-away in
cross-section to show the internal
structures. Poxviruses are shaped like
flattened capsules/barrels or are lens or
pill-shaped.

Poxvirus Pov-Ray model 3

Their structure is complex,
neither icosahedral nor helical. This
model is based on Vaccinia, the smallpox
virus. The structures are also highly
variable and often incompletely studied.

 

35. West Nile Virus  West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae.

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This flavivirus is found in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It was first identified in the West Nile subregion in the East African nation of Uganda in 1937. Prior to the mid-1990s, WNV disease occurred only sporadically and was considered a minor risk for humans, until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996, with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease. WNV has now spread globally, with the first case in the Western Hemisphere being identified in New York City in 1999; over the next five years, the virus spread across the continental United States, north into Canada, and southward into the Caribbean islands and Latin America. WNV also spread to Europe, beyond the Mediterranean Basin, and a new strain of the virus was identified in Italy in 2012. WNV is now considered to be an endemic pathogen in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and in the United States, which in 2012 has experienced one of its worst epidemics. In 2012, WNV killed 286 people in the United States, with the state of Texas being hard hit by this virus, making the year the deadliest on record for the United States.

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The main mode of WNV transmission is via various species of mosquitoes, which are the prime vector, with birds being the most commonly infected animal and serving as the prime reservoir host—especially passerines, which are of the largest order of birds, Passeriformes. WNV has been found in various species of ticks, but current research suggests they are not important vectors of the virus. WNV also infects various mammal species, including humans, and has been identified in reptilian species, including alligators and crocodiles, and also in amphibians. Not all animal species that are susceptible to WNV infection, including humans, and not all bird species develop sufficient viral levels to transmit the disease to uninfected mosquitoes, and are thus not considered major factors in WNV transmission.

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Approximately 80% of West Nile virus infections in humans are subclinical, which cause no symptoms. In the cases where symptoms do occur—termed West Nile fever in cases without neurological disease—the time from infection to the appearance of symptoms (incubation period) is typically between 2 and 15 days. Symptoms may include fever, headaches, fatigue, muscle pain or aches, malaise, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, myalgias and rash. Less than 1% of the cases are severe and result in neurological disease when the central nervous system is affected. People of advanced age, the very young, or those with immunosuppression, either medically induced, such as those taking immunosupressive drugs, or due to a pre-existing medical condition such as HIV infection, are most susceptible. The specific neurological diseases that may occur are West Nile encephalitis, which causes inflammation of the brain, West Nile meningitis, which causes inflammation of the meninges, which are the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, West Nile meningoencephalitis, which causes inflammation of the brain and also the meninges surrounding it, and West Nile poliomyelitis—spinal cord inflammation, which results in a syndrome similar to polio, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis.

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Currently, no vaccine against WNV infection is available. The best method to reduce the rates of WNV infection is mosquito control on the part of municipalities, businesses and individual citizens to reduce breeding populations of mosquitoes in public, commercial and private areas via various means including eliminating standing pools of water where mosquitoes breed, such as in old tires, buckets, unused swimming pools, etc. On an individual basis, the use of personal protective measures to avoid being bitten by an infected mosquito, via the use of mosquito repellent, window screens, avoiding areas where mosquitoes are more prone to congregate, such as near marshes, areas with heavy vegetation etc., and being more vigilant from dusk to dawn when mosquitoes are most active offers the best defense. In the event of being bitten by an infected mosquito, familiarity of the symptoms of WNV on the part of laypersons, physicians and allied health professions affords the best chance of receiving timely medical treatment, which may aid in reducing associated possible complications and also appropriate palliative care.

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The incubation period for WNV—the amount of time from infection to symptom onset—is typically from between 2 and 15 days. Headache can be a prominent symptom of WNV fever, meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, and it may or may not be present in poliomyelytis-like syndrome. Thus, headache is not a useful indicator of neuroinvasive disease.(CDC)

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  • West Nile virus encephalitis (WNE) is the most common neuroinvasive manifestation of WNND. WNE presents with similar symptoms to other viral encephalitis with fever, headaches, and altered mental status. A prominent finding in WNE is muscular weakness (30 to 50 percent of patients with encephalitis), often with lower motor neuron symptoms, flaccid paralysis, and hyporeflexia with no sensory abnormalities.
  • West Nile meningitis (WNM) usually involves fever, headache, and stiff neck. Pleocytosis, an increase of white blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid, is also present. Changes in consciousness are not usually seen and are mild when present.
  • West Nile meningoencephalitis is inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and meninges (meningitis).
  • West Nile poliomyelitis (WNP), an acute flaccid paralysis syndrome associated with WNV infection, is less common than WNM or WNE. This syndrome is generally characterized by the acute onset of asymmetric limb weakness or paralysis in the absence of sensory loss. Pain sometimes precedes the paralysis. The paralysis can occur in the absence of fever, headache, or other common symptoms associated with WNV infection. Involvement of respiratory muscles, leading to acute respiratory failure, can sometimes occur.
  • West-Nile reversible paralysis,. Like WNP, the weakness or paralysis is asymmetric. Reported cases have been noted to have an initial preservation of deep tendon reflexes, which is not expected for a pure anterior horn involvement.Disconnect of upper motor neuron influences on the anterior horn cells possibly by myelitis or glutamate excitotoxicity have been suggested as mechanisms.The prognosis for recovery is excellent.
  • Cutaneous manifestations specifically rashes, are not uncommon in WNV-infected patients; however, there is a paucity of detailed descriptions in case reports and there are few clinical images widely available. Punctate erythematous (?), macular, and papular eruptions, most pronounced on the extremities have been observed in WNV cases and in some cases histopathologic findings have shown a sparse superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate, a manifestation commonly seen in viral exanthems (?). A literature review provides support that this punctate rash is a common cutaneous presentation of WNV infection. (Anderson RC et al.)

USA WEST NILE VIRUS

West Nile virus life cycle. After binding and uptake, the virion envelope fuses with cellular membranes, followed by uncoating of the nucleocapsid and release of the RNA genome into the cytoplasm. The viral genome serves as messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation of all viral proteins and as template during RNA replication. Copies are subsequently packaged within new virus particles that are transported in vesicles to the cell membrane.

WNV_life_cycle

WNV is one of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic serocomplex of viruses. Image reconstructions and cryoelectron microscopy reveal a 45–50 nm virion covered with a relatively smooth protein surface. This structure is similar to the dengue fever virus; both belong to the genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae.

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The genetic material of WNV is a positive-sense, single strand of RNA, which is between 11,000 and 12,000 nucleotides long; these genes encode seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The RNA strand is held within a nucleocapsid formed from 12-kDa protein blocks; the capsid is contained within a host-derived membrane altered by two viral glycoproteins. Phylogenetic tree of West Nile viruses based on sequencing of the envelope gene during complete genome sequencing of the virus

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Studies of phylogenetic lineages determined WNV emerged as a distinct virus around 1000 years ago. This initial virus developed into two distinct lineages, lineage 1 and its multiple profiles is the source of the epidemic transmission in Africa and throughout the world. Lineage 2 was considered an Africa zoonosis. However, in 2008, lineage 2, previously only seen in horses in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, began to appear in horses in Europe, where the first known outbreak affected 18 animals in Hungary in 2008. Lineage 1 West Nile virus was detected in South Africa in 2010 in a mare and her aborted fetus; previously, only lineage 2 West Nile virus had been detected in horses and humans in South Africa. A 2007 fatal case in a killer whale in Texas broadened the known host range of West Nile virus to include cetaceans.

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The United States virus was very closely related to a lineage 1 strain found in Israel in 1998. Since the first North American cases in 1999, the virus has been reported throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America. There have been human cases and equine cases, and many birds are infected. The Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus, was the first nonhuman primate to contract WNV.  Both the United States and Israeli strains are marked by high mortality rates in infected avian populations; the presence of dead birds—especially Corvidae—can be an early indicator of the arrival of the virus.

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The West Nile virus maintains itself in nature by cycling between mosquitoes and certain species of birds. A mosquito (the vector) bites an uninfected bird (the host), the virus amplifies within the bird, an uninfected mosquito bites the bird and is in turn infected. Other species such as humans and horses are incidental infections, as they are not the mosquitoes’ preferred blood meal source. The virus does not amplify within these species and they are known as dead-end hosts.

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The West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted through female mosquitoes, which are the prime vectors of the virus. Only females feed on blood, and different species have evolved to take a blood meal on preferred types of vertebrate hosts. The infected mosquito species vary according to geographical area; in the United States, Culex pipiens (Eastern United States), Culex tarsalis (Midwest and West), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Southeast) are the main sources.The various species that transmit the WNV prefer birds of the Passeriformes order, the largest order of birds. Within that order there is further selectivity with various mosquito species exhibiting preference for different species. In the United States WNV mosquito vectors have shown definitive preference for members of the Corvidae and Thrush family of birds. Amongst the preferred species within these families are the American crow, a corvid, and the American robin (Turdus migratorius), a thrush.

The proboscis of a female mosquito—here a Southern House Mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus)—pierces the epidermis and dermis to allow it to feed on human blood from a capillary: this one is almost fully tumescent. The mosquito injects saliva, which contains an anesthetic, and an anticoagulant into the puncture wound; and in infected mosquitoes, the West Nile virus.

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The birds develop sufficient viral levels after being infected, to transmit the infection to other biting mosquitoes that in turn go on to infect other birds. In crows and robins, the infection is fatal in 4–5 days. This epizootic viral amplification cycle has been shown to peak 15–16 days before humans become ill. This may be due to the high mortality, and thus depletion of the preferred hosts, i.e., the specific bird species. The mosquitoes become less selective and begin feeding more readily on other animal types such as humans and horses which are considered incidental hosts.

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In mammals, the virus does not multiply as readily (i.e., does not develop high viremia during infection), and mosquitoes biting infected mammals are not believed to ingest sufficient virus to become infected,making mammals so-called dead-end hosts.

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Direct human-to-human transmission initially was believed to be caused only by occupational exposure, or conjunctive exposure to infected blood. The US outbreak identified additional transmission methods through blood transfusion,organ transplant intrauterine exposure, and breast feeding. Since 2003, blood banks in the United States routinely screen for the virus among their donors. As a precautionary measure, the UK’s National Blood Service initially ran a test for this disease in donors who donate within 28 days of a visit to the United States, Canada or the northeastern provinces of Italy and the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service asks prospective donors to wait 28 days after returning from North America or the northeastern provinces of Italy before donating.

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Recently, the potential for mosquito saliva to impact the course of WNV disease was demonstrated. Mosquitoes inoculate their saliva into the skin while obtaining blood. Mosquito saliva is a pharmacological cocktail of secreted molecules, principally proteins, that can affect vascular constriction, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, inflammation, and immunity. It clearly alters the immune response in a manner that may be advantageous to a virus. Studies have shown it can specifically modulate the immune response during early virus infection, and mosquito feeding can exacerbate WNV infection, leading to higher viremia and more severe forms of disease.

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Vertical transmission, the transmission of a viral or bacterial disease from the female of the species to her offspring, has been observed in various West Nile virus studies, amongst different species of mosquitoes in both the laboratory and in nature.Mosquito progeny infected vertically in autumn, may potentially serve as a mechanism for WNV to overwinter and initiate enzootic horizontal transmission the following spring.


35 of the Most Dangerous Viruses and Bacteria’s in the World Today

The Black Plague, Marburg, Ebola, Influenza, Enterovirus virus may all sound terrifying, but it’s not the most dangerous virus in the world. It isn’t HIV either. Here is a list of the most dangerous viruses and Bacteria’s on the Planet Earth.

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1. Marburg Virus The most dangerous virus is the Marburg virus. It is named after a small and idyllic town on the river Lahn – but that has nothing to do with the disease itself. The Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus. As with Ebola, the Marburg virus causes convulsions and bleeding of mucous membranes, skin and organs. It has a fatality rate of 90 percent.  The Marburg virus causes a rare, but severe hemorrhagic fever that has a fatality rate of 88%. It was first identified in 1967 when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever cropped up simultaneously in Marburg, where the disease got its name, Frankfurt in Germany and Belgrade, Serbia.

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Marburg and Ebola came from the Filoviridae family of viruses. They both have the capacity to cause dramatic outbreaks with the greatest fatality rates. It is transmitted to humans from fruit bats and spreads to humans through direct contact with the blood, secretions and other bodily fluids of infected humans. No anti-viral treatment or vaccine exists against the Marburg virus. In 1967, a group of lab workers in Germany (Marburg and Frankfurt) and Serbia (then Yugoslavia) contracted a new type of hemorrhagic fever from some virus-carrying African green monkeys that had been imported for research and development of polio vaccines. The Marburg virus is also BSL-4, and Marburg hemorrhagic fever has a 23 to 90 percent fatality rate. Spread through close human-to-human contact, symptoms start with a headache, fever, and a rash on the trunk, and progress to multiple organ failure and massive internal bleeding.

There is no cure, and the latest cases were reported out of Uganda at the end of 2012. An American tourist who had explored a Ugandan cave full of fruit bats known to be reservoirs of the virus contracted it and survived in 2008. (But not before bringing his sick self back to the U.S.)

2. Ebola Virus  There are five strains of the Ebola virus, each named after countries and regions in Africa: Zaire, Sudan, Tai Forest, Bundibugyo and Reston. The Zaire Ebola virus is the deadliest, with a mortality rate of 90 percent. It is the strain currently spreading through Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, and beyond. Scientists say flying foxes probably brought the Zaire Ebola virus into cities.

Typically less than 100 lives a year. UPDATE: A severe Ebola outbreak was detected in West Africa in March 2014. The number of deaths in this latest outbreak has outnumbered all other known cases from previous outbreaks combined. The World Health Organization is reporting nearly 2,000 deaths in this latest outbreak.
Once a person is infected with the virus, the disease has an incubation period of 2-21 days; however, some infected persons are asymptomatic. Initial symptoms are sudden malaise, headache, and muscle pain, progressing to high fever, vomiting, severe hemorrhaging (internally and out of the eyes and mouth) and in 50%-90% of patients, death, usually within days. The likelihood of death is governed by the virulence of the particular Ebola strain involved. Ebola virus is transmitted in body fluids and secretions; there is no evidence of transmission by casual contact. There is no vaccine and no cure.

Its melodic moniker may roll off the tongue, but if you contract the virus (above), that’s not the only thing that will roll off one of your body parts (a disturbing amount of blood coming out of your eyes, for instance). Four of the five known Ebola viral strains cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), which has killed thousands of people in sub-Saharan African nations since its discovery in 1976.

The deadly virus is named after the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo where it was first reported, and is classified as a CDC Biosafety Level 4, a.k.a. BSL-4, making it one of the most dangerous pathogens on the planet. It is thought to spread through close contact with bodily secretions. EHF has a 50 to 90 percent mortality rate, with a rapid onset of symptoms that start with a headache and sore throat and progress to major internal and external bleeding and multiple organ failure. There’s no known cure, and the most recent cases were reported at the end of 2012 in Uganda.

3. The Hantavirus describes several types of viruses. It is named after a river where American soldiers were first thought to have been infected with the Hantavirus, during the Korean War in 1950. Symptoms include lung disease, fever and kidney failure.

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Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a deadly disease transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva. Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in aerosolized virus. HPS was first recognized in 1993 and has since been identified throughout the United States. Although rare, HPS is potentially deadly. Rodent control in and around the home remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus infection. Also known as House Mouse Flu. The symptoms, which are very similar to HFRS, include tachycardia and tachypnea. Such conditions can lead to a cardiopulmonary phase, where cardiovascular shock can occur, and hospitalization of the patient is required.

There are many strains of hantavirus floating around (yep, it’s airborne) in the wake of rodents that carry the virus. Different strains, carried by different rodent species, are known to cause different types of illnesses in humans, most notably hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)—first discovered during the Korean War—and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), which reared its ugly head with a 1993 outbreak in the Southwestern United States. Severe HFRS causes acute kidney failure, while HPS gets you by filling your lungs with fluid (edema). HFRS has a mortality rate of 1 to 15 percent, while HPS is 38 percent. The U.S. saw its most recent outbreak of hantavirus—of the HPS variety—at Yosemite National Park in late 2012.

4. Avian Influenza Bird Flu The various strains of bird flu regularly cause panic – which is perhaps justified because the mortality rate is 70 percent. But in fact the risk of contracting the H5N1 strain – one of the best known – is quite low. You can only be infected through direct contact with poultry. It is said this explains why most cases appear in Asia, where people often live close to chickens.

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This form of the flu is common among birds (usually poultry) and infects humans through contact with secretions of an infected bird.

Although rare, those infected have a high incidence of death. Symptoms are like those of the more common human form of influenza.

Bird flu (H5N1) has receded from international headlines for the moment, as few human cases of the deadly virus have been reported this year. But when Dutch researchers recently created an even more transmissible strain of the virus in a laboratory for research purposes, they stirred grave concerns about what would happen if it escaped into the outside world. “Part of what makes H5N1 so deadly is that most people lack an immunity to it,” explains Marc Lipsitch, a professor of epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) who studies the spread of infectious diseases. “If you make a strain that’s highly transmissible between humans, as the Dutch team did, it could be disastrous if it ever escaped the lab.”

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H5N1 first made global news in early 1997 after claiming two dozen victims in Hong Kong. The virus normally occurs only in wild birds and farm-raised fowl, but in those isolated early cases, it made the leap from birds to humans. It then swept unimpeded through the bodies of its initial human victims, causing massive hemorrhages in the lungs and death in a matter of days. Fortunately, during the past 15 years, the virus has claimed only 400 victims worldwide—although the strain can jump species, it hasn’t had the ability to move easily from human to human, a critical limit to its spread.

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That’s no longer the case, however. In late 2011, the Dutch researchers announced the creation of an H5N1 virus transmissible through the air between ferrets (the best animal model for studying the impact of disease on humans). The news caused a storm of controversy in the popular press and heated debate among scientists over the ethics of the work. For Lipsitch and many others, the creation of the new strain was cause for alarm. “H5N1 influenza is already one of the most deadly viruses in existence,” he says. “If you make [the virus] transmissible [between humans], you have to be very concerned about what the resulting strain could do.”

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To put this danger in context, the 1918 “Spanish” flu—one of the most deadly influenza epidemics on record—killed between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide, or roughly 3 to 6 percent of those infected. The more lethal SARS virus (see “The SARS Scare,” March-April 2007, page 47) killed almost 10 percent of infected patients during a 2003 outbreak that reached 25 countries worldwide. H5N1 is much more dangerous, killing almost 60 percent of those who contract the illness.

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If a transmissible strain of H5N1 escapes the lab, says Lipsitch, it could spark a global health catastrophe. “It could infect millions of people in the United States, and very likely more than a billion people globally, like most successful flu strains do,” he says. “This might be one of the worst viruses—perhaps the worst virus—in existence right now because it has both transmissibility and high virulence.”

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Ironically, this is why Ron Fouchier, the Dutch virologist whose lab created the new H5N1 strain, argues that studying it in more depth is crucial. If the virus can be made transmissible in the lab, he reasons, it can also occur in nature—and researchers should have an opportunity to understand as much as possible about the strain before that happens.

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Lipsitch, who directs the Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics at HSPH, thinks the risks far outweigh the rewards. Even in labs with the most stringent safety requirements, such as enclosed rubber “space suits” to isolate researchers, accidents do happen. A single unprotected breath could infect a researcher, who might unknowingly spread the virus beyond the confines of the lab.

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In an effort to avoid this scenario, Lipsitch has been pushing for changes in research policy in the United States and abroad. (A yearlong, voluntary global ban on H5N1 research was lifted in many countries in January, and new rules governing such research in the United States were expected in February.) Lipsitch says that none of the current research proposals he has seen “would significantly improve our preparational response to a national pandemic of H5N1. The small risk of a very large public health disaster…is not worth taking [for] scientific knowledge without an immediate public health application.” His recent op-eds in scientific journals and the popular press have stressed the importance of regulating the transmissible strain and limiting work with the virus to only a handful of qualified labs. In addition, he argues, only technicians who have the right training and experience—and have been inoculated against the virus—should be allowed to handle it.

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These are simple limitations that could drastically reduce the danger of the virus spreading, he asserts, yet they’re still not popular with some researchers. He acknowledges that limiting research is an unusual practice scientifically but argues, “These are unusual circumstances.”

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Lipsitch thinks a great deal of useful research can still be done on the non-transmissible strain of the virus, which would provide valuable data without the risk of accidental release. In the meantime, he hopes to make more stringent H5N1 policies a priority for U.S. and foreign laboratories. Although it’s not a perfect solution, he says, it’s far better than a nightmare scenario.

5. Lassa Virus  A nurse in Nigeria was the first person to be infected with the Lassa virus. The virus is transmitted by rodents. Cases can be endemic – which means the virus occurs in a specific region, such as in western Africa, and can reoccur there at any time. Scientists assume that 15 percent of rodents in western Africa carry the virus.

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The Marburg virus under a microscope

This BSL-4 virus gives us yet another reason to avoid rodents. Lassa is carried by a species of rat in West Africa called Mastomys. It’s airborne…at least when you’re hanging around the rat’s fecal matter. Humans, however, can only spread it through direct contact with bodily secretions. Lassa fever, which has a 15 to 20 percent mortality rate, causes about 5000 deaths a year in West Africa, particularly in Sierra Leone and Liberia.

It starts with a fever and some retrosternal pain (behind the chest) and can progress to facial swelling, encephalitis, mucosal bleeding and deafness. Fortunately, researchers and medical professionals have found some success in treating Lassa fever with an antiviral drug in the early stages of the disease.

6. The Junin Virus is associated with Argentine hemorrhagic fever. People infected with the virus suffer from tissue inflammation, sepsis and skin bleeding. The problem is that the symptoms can appear to be so common that the disease is rarely detected or identified in the first instance.

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A member of the genus Arenavirus, Junin virus characteristically causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). AHF leads to major alterations within the vascular, neurological and immune systems and has a mortality rate of between 20 and 30%.  Symptoms of the disease are conjunctivitis, purpura, petechia and occasional sepsis. The symptoms of the disease are relatively indistinct and may therefore be mistaken for a different condition.

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Since the discovery of the Junin virus in 1958, the geographical distribution of the pathogen, although still confined to Argentina, has risen. At the time of discovery, Junin virus was confined to an area of around 15,000 km². At the beginning of 2000, the distribution had risen to around 150,000 km². The natural hosts of Junin virus are rodents, particularly Mus musculus, Calomys spp. and Akodon azarae.

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Direct rodent to human transmission only transpires when contact is made with excrement of an infected rodent. This commonly occurs via ingestion of contaminated food or water, inhalation of particles within urine or via direct contact of broken skin with rodent excrement.

7. The Crimea-Congo Fever Virus is transmitted by ticks. It is similar to the Ebola and Marburg viruses in the way it progresses. During the first days of infection, sufferers present with pin-sized bleedings in the face, mouth and the pharynx.

Transmitted through tick bites this disease is endemic (consistently present)  in most countries of West Africa and the Middle East. Although rare, CCHF has a 30% mortality rate. The most recent outbreak of the disease was in 2005 in Turkey. The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a common disease transmitted by a tick-Bourne virus. The virus causes major hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with a fatality rate of up to 30%. It is chiefly transmitted to people through tick and livestock. Person-to-person transmission occurs through direct contact with the blood, secretions and other bodily fluids of an infected person. No vaccination exists for both humans and animals against CCHF.

8. The Machupo Virus is associated with Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, also known as black typhus. The infection causes high fever, accompanied by heavy bleedings. It progresses similar to the Junin virus. The virus can be transmitted from human to human, and rodents often the carry it.

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Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Ordog Fever, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease originating in Bolivia after infection by Machupo virus.BHF was first identified in 1963 as an ambisense RNA virus of the Arenaviridae family,by a research group led by Karl Johnson. The mortality rate is estimated at 5 to 30 percent.

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Due to its pathogenicity, Machupo virus requires Biosafety Level Four conditions, the highest level.In February and March 2007, some 20 suspected BHF cases (3 fatal) were reported to the El Servicio Departmental de Salud (SEDES) in Beni Department, Bolivia, and in February 2008, at least 200 suspected new cases (12 fatal) were reported to SEDES.In November 2011, a SEDES expert involved in a serosurvey to determine the extent of Machupo virus infections in the Department after the discovery of a second confirmed case near the departmental capital of Trinidad in November, 2011, expressed concern about expansion of the virus’ distribution outside the endemic zone in Mamoré and Iténez provinces.

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Bolivian hemorrhagic fever was one of three hemorrhagic fevers and one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological weapons before the nation suspended its biological weapons program. It was also under research by the Soviet Union, under the Biopreparat bureau.

9. Kyasanur Forest Virus  Scientists discovered the Kyasanur Forest Virus (KFD) virus in woodlands on the southwestern coast of India in 1955. It is transmitted by ticks, but scientists say it is difficult to determine any carriers. It is assumed that rats, birds and boars could be hosts. People infected with the virus suffer from high fever, strong headaches and muscle pain which can cause bleedings.

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The disease has a morbidity rate of 2-10%, and affects 100-500 people annually.The symptoms of the disease include a high fever with frontal headaches, followed by hemorrhagic symptoms, such as bleeding from the nasal cavity, throat, and gums, as well as gastrointestinal bleeding.An affected person may recover in two weeks time, but the convalescent period is typically very long, lasting for several months. There will be muscle aches and weakness during this period and the affected person is unable to engage in physical activities.

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There are a variety of animals thought to be reservoir hosts for the disease, including porcupines, rats, squirrels, mice and shrews. The vector for disease transmission is Haemaphysalis spinigera, a forest tick. Humans contract infection from the bite of nymphs of the tick.

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The disease was first reported from Kyasanur Forest of Karnataka in India in March 1957. The disease first manifested as an epizootic outbreak among monkeys killing several of them in the year 1957. Hence the disease is also locally known as Monkey Disease or Monkey Fever. The similarity with Russian Spring-summer encephalitis was noted and the possibility of migratory birds carrying the disease was raised. Studies began to look for the possible species that acted as reservoirs for the virus and the agents responsible for transmission. Subsequent studies failed to find any involvement of migratory birds although the possibility of their role in initial establishment was not ruled out. The virus was found to be quite distinctive and not closely related to the Russian virus strains.

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Antigenic relatedness is however close to many other strains including the Omsk hemorrhagic fever (OHF) and birds from Siberia have been found to show an antigenic response to KFD virus. Sequence based studies however note the distinctiveness of OHF.Early studies in India were conducted in collaboration with the US Army Medical Research Unit and this led to controversy and conspiracy theories.

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Subsequent studies based on sequencing found that the Alkhurma virus, found in Saudi Arabia is closely related. In 1989 a patient in Nanjianin, China was found with fever symptoms and in 2009 its viral gene sequence was found to exactly match with that of the KFD reference virus of 1957. This has however been questioned since the Indian virus shows variations in sequence over time and the exact match with the virus sequence of 1957 and the Chinese virus of 1989 is not expected.

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This study also found using immune response tests that birds and humans in the region appeared to have been exposed to the virus.Another study has suggested that the virus is recent in origin dating the nearest common ancestor of it and related viruses to around 1942, based on the estimated rate of sequence substitutions. The study also raises the possibility of bird involvement in long-distance transfer. It appears that these viruses diverged 700 years ago.

10. Dengue Fever is a constant threat. If you’re planning a holiday in the tropics, get informed about dengue. Transmitted by mosquitoes, dengue affects between 50 and 100 million people a year in popular holiday destinations such as Thailand and India. But it’s more of a problem for the 2 billion people who live in areas that are threatened by dengue fever.

25,000 Deaths a year Also known as ‘breakbone fever’ due to the extreme pain felt during fever, is an relatively new disease caused by one of four closely-related viruses. WHO estimates that a whopping 2.5 billion people (two fifths of the World’s population) are at risk from dengue. It puts the total number of infections at around 50 million per year, and is now epidemic in more than 100 countries.


Dengue viruses are transferred to humans through the bites of infective female Aedes mosquitoes. The dengue virus circulates in the blood of a human for two to seven days, during the same time they have the fever. It usually appears first on the lower limbs and the chest; in some patients, it spreads to cover most of the body. There may also be severe retro-orbital pain, (a pain from behind the eyes that is distinctive to Dengue infections), and gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting coffee-grounds-like congealed blood, or severe diarrhea.

The leading cause of death in the tropics and subtropics is the infection brought on by the dengue virus, which causes a high fever, severe headache, and, in the worst cases, hemorrhaging. The good news is that it’s treatable and not contagious. The bad news is there’s no vaccine, and you can get it easily from the bite of an infected mosquito—which puts at least a third of the world’s human population at risk. The CDC estimates that there are over 100 million cases of dengue fever each year. It’s a great marketing tool for bug spray.

11. HIV 3.1 Million Lives a Year Human Immunodeficiency Virus has claimed the lives of more than 25 million people since 1981. HIV gets to the immune system by infecting important cells, including helper cells called CD4+ T cells, plus macrophanges and dendritic cells. Once the virus has taken hold, it systematically kills these cells, damaging the infected person’s immunity and leaving them more at risk from infections.

The majority of people infected with HIV go on to develop AIDS. Once a patient has AIDS common infections and tumours normally controlled by the CD4+ T cells start to affect the person.  
In the latter stages of the disease, pneumonia and various types of herpes can infect the patient and cause death.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The term HIV/AIDS represents the entire range of disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus from early infection to late stage symptoms. During the initial infection, a person may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. This is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the illness progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections and tumors that do not usually affect people who have working immune systems.

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HIV is transmitted primarily via unprotected sexual intercourse (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Prevention of HIV infection, primarily through safe sex and needle-exchange programs, is a key strategy to control the spread of the disease. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. While antiretroviral treatment reduces the risk of death and complications from the disease, these medications are expensive and have side effects. Without treatment, the average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.

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Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. AIDS was first recognized by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause—HIV infection—was identified in the early part of the decade. Since its discovery, AIDS has caused an estimated 36 million deaths worldwide (as of 2012). As of 2012, approximately 35.3 million people are living with HIV globally. HIV/AIDS is considered a pandemic—a disease outbreak which is present over a large area and is actively spreading.

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HIV/AIDS has had a great impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination. The disease also has significant economic impacts. There are many misconceptions about HIV/AIDS such as the belief that it can be transmitted by casual non-sexual contact. The disease has also become subject to many controversies involving religion. It has attracted international medical and political attention as well as large-scale funding since it was identified in the 1980s

 

12. Rotavirus 61,000 Lives a Year  According to the WHO, this merciless virus causes the deaths of more than half a million children every year. In fact, by the age of five, virtually every child on the planet has been infected with the virus at least once. Immunity builds up with each infection, so subsequent infections are milder. However, in areas where adequate healthcare is limited the disease is often fatal. Rotavirus infection usually occurs through ingestion of contaminated stool.

Because the virus is able to live a long time outside of the host, transmission can occur through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or by coming into direct contact with contaminated surfaces, then putting hands in the mouth.
Once it’s made its way in, the rotavirus infects the cells that line the small intestine and multiplies. It emits an enterotoxin, which gives rise to gastroenteritis.

13. Smallpox   Officially eradicated – Due to it’s long history, it impossible to estimate the carnage over the millennia Smallpox localizes in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin, this results in a characteristic maculopapular rash, and later, raised fluid-filled blisters. It has an overall mortality rate of 30–35%. Smallpox is believed to have emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC. The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans per year during the closing years of the 18th century (including five reigning monarchs), and was responsible for a third of all blindness. Of all those infected, 20–60%—and over 80% of infected children—died from the disease.
Smallpox was responsible for an estimated 300–500 million deaths during the 20th century alone. In the early 1950s an estimated 50 million cases of smallpox occurred in the world each year.

As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year. After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in December 1979.
Smallpox is one of only two infectious diseases to have been eradicated by humans, the other being Rinderpest, which was unofficially declared eradicated in October 2010.

The virus that causes smallpox wiped out hundreds of millions of people worldwide over thousands of years. We can’t even blame it on animals either, as the virus is only carried by and contagious for humans. There are several different types of smallpox disease that result from an infection ranging from mild to fatal, but it is generally marked by a fever, rash, and blistering, oozing pustules that develop on the skin. Fortunately, smallpox was declared eradicated in 1979, as the result of successful worldwide implementation of the vaccine.

14. Hepatitis B  521,000 Deaths a Year A third of the World’s population (over 2 billion people) has come in contact with this virus, including 350 million chronic carriers. In China and other parts of Asia, up to 10% of the adult population is chronically infected. The symptoms of acute hepatitis B include yellowing of the skin of eyes, dark urine, vomiting, nausea, extreme fatigue, and abdominal pain.

Luckily, more than 95% of people who contract the virus as adults or older children will make a full recovery and develop immunity to the disease. In other people, however, hepatitis B can bring on chronic liver failure due to cirrhosis or cancer.

Hepatitis B is an infectious illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects hominoidea, including humans. It was originally known as "serum hepatitis". Many people have no symptoms during the initial infected. Some develop an acute illness with vomiting, yellow skin, dark urine and abdominal pain. Often these symptoms last a few weeks and rarely result in death. It may take 30 to 180 days for symptoms to begin. Less than 10% of those infected develop chronic hepatitis B. In those with chronic disease cirrhosis and liver cancer may eventually develop.

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The virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious blood or body fluidsInfection around the time of birth is the most common way the disease is acquired in areas of the world where is common. In areas where the disease is uncommon intravenous drug use and sex are the most common routes of infection. Other risk factors include working in a healthcare setting, blood transfusions, dialysis, sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected person, travel in countries where it is common, and living in an institution.

Tattooing and acupuncture led to a significant number of cases in the 1980s; however, this has become less common with improved sterility. The hepatitis B viruses cannot be spread by holding hands, sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses, kissing, hugging, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding.  The hepatitis B virus is a hepadnavirushepa from hepatotropic (attracted to the liver) and dna because it is a DNA virus. The viruses replicate through an RNA intermediate form by reverse transcription, which in practice relates them to retroviruses.It is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV.

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The infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982. During the initial infected care is based on the symptoms present. In those who developed chronic disease antiviral medication such as tenofovir or interferon maybe useful, however are expensive.

About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives, including 350 million who are chronic carriers. Over 750,000 people die of hepatitis B a year. The disease has caused outbreaks in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is now only common in China. Between 5 and 10% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia have chronic disease. Research is in progress to create edible HBV vaccines in foods such as potatoes, carrots, and bananas.In 2004, an estimated 350 million individuals were infected worldwide. National and regional prevalence ranges from over 10% in Asia to under 0.5% in the United States and northern Europe. Routes of infection include vertical transmission (such as through childbirth), early life horizontal transmission (bites, lesions, and sanitary habits), and adult horizontal transmission (sexual contact, intravenous drug use).

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The primary method of transmission reflects the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in a given area. In low prevalence areas such as the continental United States and Western Europe, injection drug abuse and unprotected sex are the primary methods, although other factors may also be important. In moderate prevalence areas, which include Eastern Europe, Russia, and Japan, where 2–7% of the population is chronically infected, the disease is predominantly spread among children. In high-prevalence areas such as China and South East Asia, transmission during childbirth is most common, although in other areas of high endemicity such as Africa, transmission during childhood is a significant factor. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in areas of high endemicity is at least 8% with 10-15% prevalence in Africa/Far East. As of 2010, China has 120 million infected people, followed by India and Indonesia with 40 million and 12 million, respectively. According to World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 600,000 people die every year related to the infection. In the United States about 19,000 new cases occurred in 2011 down nearly 90% from 1990.

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Acute infection with hepatitis B virus is associated with acute viral hepatitis – an illness that begins with general ill-health, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, and dark urine, and then progresses to development of jaundice. It has been noted that itchy skin has been an indication as a possible symptom of all hepatitis virus types. The illness lasts for a few weeks and then gradually improves in most affected people. A few people may have more severe liver disease (fulminant hepatic failure), and may die as a result. The infection may be entirely asymptomatic and may go unrecognized.

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Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus either may be asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis), leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years. This type of infection dramatically increases the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). Across Europe hepatitis B and C cause approximately 50% of hepatocellular carcinomas. Chronic carriers are encouraged to avoid consuming alcohol as it increases their risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis B virus has been linked to the development of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN).

HBV

Symptoms outside of the liver are present in 1–10% of HBV-infected people and include serum-sickness–like syndrome, acute necrotizing vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa), membranous glomerulonephritis, and papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti–Crosti syndrome). The serum-sickness–like syndrome occurs in the setting of acute hepatitis B, often preceding the onset of jaundice. The clinical features are fever, skin rash, and polyarteritis. The symptoms often subside shortly after the onset of jaundice, but can persist throughout the duration of acute hepatitis B.  About 30–50% of people with acute necrotizing vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa) are HBV carriers. HBV-associated nephropathy has been described in adults but is more common in children.Membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common form. Other immune-mediated hematological disorders, such as essential mixed cryoglobulinemia and aplastic anemia.

15. Influenza 500,000 Deaths a Year Influenza has been a prolific killer for centuries. The symptoms of influenza were first described more than 2,400 years ago by Hippocrates. Pandemics generally occur three times a century, and can cause millions of deaths. The most fatal pandemic on record was the Spanish flu outbreak in 1918, which caused between 20 million and 100 million deaths. In order to invade a host, the virus shell includes proteins that bind themselves to receptors on the outside of cells in the lungs and air passages of the victim. Once the virus has latched itself onto the cell it takes over so much of its machinery that the cell dies. Dead cells in the airways cause a runny nose and sore throat. Too many dead cells in the lungs causes death.

 
Vaccinations against the flu are common in developed countries. However, a vaccination that is effective one year may not necessarily work the next year, due to the way the rate at which a flu virus evolves and the fact that new strains will soon replace older ones. No virus can claim credit for more worldwide pandemics and scares than influenza.

The outbreak of the Spanish flu in 1918 is generally considered to be one of the worst pandemics in human history, infecting 20 to 40 percent of the world’s population and killing 50 million in the span of just two years. (A reconstruction of that virus is above.) The swine flu was its most recent newsmaker, when a 2009 pandemic may have seen as many as 89 million people infected worldwide.

Effective influenza vaccines exist, and most people easily survive infections. But the highly infectious respiratory illness is cunning—the virus is constantly mutating and creating new strains. Thousands of strains exist at any given time, many of them harmless, and vaccines available in the U.S. cover only about 40 percent of the strains at large each year.

16. Hepatitis C  56,000 Deaths a Year An estimated 200-300 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C.

 

Most people infected with hepatitis C don’t have any symptoms and feel fine for years. However, liver damage invariably rears its ugly head over time, often decades after first infection. In fact, 70% of those infected develop chronic liver disease, 15% are struck with cirrhosis and 5% can die from liver cancer or cirrhosis. In the USA, hepatitis C is the primary reason for liver transplants.

All-about-hepatitis-C

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure, liver cancer, or life-threatening esophageal and gastric varices.

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HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, and transfusions. An estimated 150–200 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C. The existence of hepatitis C (originally identifiable only as a type of non-A non-B hepatitis) was suggested in the 1970s and proven in 1989. Hepatitis C infects only humans and chimpanzees.

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The virus persists in the liver in about 85% of those infected. This chronic infection can be treated with medication: the standard therapy is a combination of peginterferon and ribavirin, with either boceprevir or telaprevir added in some cases. Overall, 50–80% of people treated are cured. Those who develop cirrhosis or liver cancer may require a liver transplant. Hepatitis C is the leading reason for liver transplantation, though the virus usually recurs after transplantation. No vaccine against hepatitis C is available.

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Hepatitis C infection causes acute symptoms in 15% of cases. Symptoms are generally mild and vague, including a decreased appetite, fatigue, nausea, muscle or joint pains, and weight loss and rarely does acute liver failure result. Most cases of acute infection are not associated with jaundice. The infection resolves spontaneously in 10–50% of cases, which occurs more frequently in individuals who are young and female.

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About 80% of those exposed to the virus develop a chronic infection.  This is defined as the presence of detectable viral replication for at least six months. Most experience minimal or no symptoms during the initial few decades of the infection.Chronic hepatitis C can be associated with fatigue and mild cognitive problems. Chronic infection after several years may cause cirrhosis or liver cancer. The liver enzymes are normal in 7–53%.  Late relapses after apparent cure have been reported, but these can be difficult to distinguish from reinfection.

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Fatty changes to the liver occur in about half of those infected and are usually present before cirrhosis develops.  Usually (80% of the time) this change affects less than a third of the liver. Worldwide hepatitis C is the cause of 27% of cirrhosis cases and 25% of hepatocellular carcinoma.  About 10–30% of those infected develop cirrhosis over 30 years. Cirrhosis is more common in those also infected with hepatitis B, schistosoma, or HIV, in alcoholics and in those of male gender. In those with hepatitis C, excess alcohol increases the risk of developing cirrhosis 100-fold.Those who develop cirrhosis have a 20-fold greater risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. This transformation occurs at a rate of 1–3% per year.  Being infected with hepatitis B in additional to hepatitis C increases this risk further.

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Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal hypertension, ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen), easy bruising or bleeding, varices (enlarged veins, especially in the stomach and esophagus), jaundice, and a syndrome of cognitive impairment known as hepatic encephalopathy. Ascites occurs at some stage in more than half of those who have a chronic infection.

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The most common problem due to hepatitis C but not involving the liver is mixed cryoglobulinemia (usually the type II form) — an inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels. Hepatitis C is also associated with Sjögren’s syndrome (an autoimmune disorder); thrombocytopenia; lichen planus; porphyria cutanea tarda; necrolytic acral erythema; insulin resistance; diabetes mellitus; diabetic nephropathy; autoimmune thyroiditis and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.  Thrombocytopenia is estimated to occur in 0.16% to 45.4% of people with chronic hepatitis C. 20–30% of people infected have rheumatoid factor — a type of antibody. Possible associations include Hyde’s prurigo nodularis and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Cardiomyopathy with associated arrhythmias has also been reported. A variety of central nervous system disorders have been reported.  Chronic infection seems to be associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer.

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Persons who have been infected with hepatitis C may appear to clear the virus but remain infected. The virus is not detectable with conventional testing but can be found with ultra-sensitive tests.The original method of detection was by demonstrating the viral genome within liver biopsies, but newer methods include an antibody test for the virus’ core protein and the detection of the viral genome after first concentrating the viral particles by ultracentrifugation. A form of infection with persistently moderately elevated serum liver enzymes but without antibodies to hepatitis C has also been reported. This form is known as cryptogenic occult infection.

Causes of hep C(4)

Several clinical pictures have been associated with this type of infection. It may be found in people with anti-hepatitis-C antibodies but with normal serum levels of liver enzymes; in antibody-negative people with ongoing elevated liver enzymes of unknown cause; in healthy populations without evidence of liver disease; and in groups at risk for HCV infection including those on haemodialysis or family members of people with occult HCV. The clinical relevance of this form of infection is under investigation. The consequences of occult infection appear to be less severe than with chronic infection but can vary from minimal to hepatocellular carcinoma.

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The rate of occult infection in those apparently cured is controversial but appears to be low 40% of those with hepatitis but with both negative hepatitis C serology and the absence of detectable viral genome in the serum have hepatitis C virus in the liver on biopsy.How commonly this occurs in children is unknown.
There is no cure, no vaccine.

17. Measle  197,000 Deaths a Year Measles, also known as Rubeola, has done a pretty good job of killing people throughout the ages. Over the last 150 years, the virus has been responsible for the deaths of around 200 million people. The fatality rate from measles for otherwise healthy people in developed countries is 3 deaths per thousand cases, or 0.3%. In underdeveloped nations with high rates of malnutrition and poor healthcare, fatality rates have been as high as 28%. In immunocompromised patients (e.g. people with AIDS) the fatality rate is approximately 30%.

During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii’s people. In 1875, measles killed over 40,000 Fijians, approximately one-third of the population. In the 19th century, the disease decimated the Andamanese population. In 1954, the virus causing the disease was isolated from an 11-year old boy from the United States, David Edmonston, and adapted and propagated on chick embryo tissue culture.


To date, 21 strains of the measles virus have been identified.

18. Yellow Fever  30,000 Deaths a Year. Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes and is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The only known hosts of the virus are primates and several species of mosquito. The origin of the disease is most likely to be Africa, from where it was introduced to South America through the slave trade in the 16th century. Since the 17th century, several major epidemics of the disease have been recorded in the Americas, Africa and Europe. In the 19th century, yellow fever was deemed one of the most dangerous infectious diseases.

Yellow fever presents in most cases with fever, nausea, and pain and it generally subsides after several days. In some patients, a toxic phase follows, in which liver damage with jaundice (giving the name of the disease) can occur and lead to death. Because of the increased bleeding tendency (bleeding diathesis), yellow fever belongs to the group of hemorrhagic fevers.

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Since the 1980s, the number of cases of yellow fever has been increasing, making it a reemerging disease Transmitted through infected mosquitoes, Yellow Fever is still a serious problem in countries all over the world and a serious health risk for travelers to Africa, South America and some areas in the Caribbean.  Fatality rates range from 15 to over 50%. Symptoms include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting and nausea.

Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic fever transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The yellow is in reference to the yellow color (jaundice) that affects some patients. The virus is endemic in tropical areas in Africa and South America.

The disease typically occurs in two phases. The first phase typically causes fever, headache, muscle pain and back pain, chills and nausea. Most patients recover from these symptoms while 15% progresses to the toxic second phase. High fever returns, jaundice becomes apparent, patient complains of abdominal pain with vomiting, and bleeding in the mouth, eyes, nose or stomach occurs. Blood appears in the stool or vomit and kidney function deteriorates. 50% of the patients that enter the toxic phase die within 10 to 14 days.

There is no treatment for yellow fever. Patients are only given supportive care for fever, dehydration and respiratory failure. Yellow fever is preventable through vaccination.

19. Rabies  55,000 Deaths a Year Rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. If there wasn’t a vaccine, this would be the most deadly virus on the list.

It is a zoonotic virus transmitted through the bite of an animal. The virus worms its way into the brain along the peripheral nerves. The incubation phase of the rabies disease can take up to several months, depending on how far it has to go to reach the central nervous system. It provokes acute pain, violent movements, depression, uncontrollable excitement, and inability to swallow water (rabies is often known as ‘hydrophobia’). After these symptoms subside the fun really starts as the infected person experiences periods of mania followed by coma then death, usually caused by respiratory insufficiency.

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Rabies has a long and storied history dating back to 2300 B.C., with records of Babylonians who went mad and died after being bitten by dogs. While this virus itself is a beast, the sickness it causes is now is wholly preventable if treated immediately with a series of vaccinations (sometimes delivered with a terrifyingly huge needle in the abdomen). We have vaccine inventor Louis Pasteur to thank for that.

Exposure to rabies these days, while rare in the U.S., still occurs as it did thousands of years ago—through bites from infected animals. If left untreated after exposure, the virus attacks the central nervous system and death usually results. The symptoms of an advanced infection include delirium, hallucinations and raging, violent behavior in some cases, which some have argued makes rabies eerily similar to zombification. If rabies ever became airborne, we might actually have to prepare for that zombie apocalypse after all.

21. Common Cold  No known cure The common cold is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with on average two to four infections a year in adults and up to 6–12 in children. Collectively, colds, influenza, and other infections with similar symptoms are included in the diagnosis of influenza-like illness.

They may also be termed upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Influenza involves the lungs while the common cold does not.
It’s annoying as hell, but there’s nothing to do but wave the white flag on this one.
Virus: Infinity. People: 0

22. Anthrax  Anthrax is a diseased caused by a bacterium called Bacillus Anthracis. There are three types of anthrax, skin, lung, and digestive. Anthrax has lately become a major world issue for its ability to become an epidemic and spread quickly and easily among people through contact with spores.

Anthrax

It is important to know that  Anthrax is not spread from person to person, but is through contact/handling of products containing spores. Flu like symptoms, nausea, and blisters are common symptoms of exposure. Inhalational anthrax and gastrointestinal anthrax are serious issue because of their high mortality rates ranging from 50 to 100%.

Anthrax is a severe infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. This type of bacteria produces spores that can live for years in the soil. Anthrax is more common in farm animals, though humans can get infected as well. Anthrax is not contagious. A person can get infected only when the bacteria gets into the skin, lungs or  digestive tract.

There are three types of anthrax: skin anthrax, inhalation anthrax and gastrointestinal anthrax. Skin anthrax symptoms include fever, muscle aches, headache, nausea and vomiting. Inhalation anthrax begins with flu-like symptoms, which progresses  with severe respiratory distress. Shock, coma and then death follows. Most patients do not recover even if given appropriate antibiotics due to the toxins released by the anthrax bacteria. Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms include fever, nausea, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea.

Anthrax is treated with antibiotics.

23. Malaria  Malaria is a mosquito-borne illness caused by parasite. Although malaria can be prevented and treated, it is often fatal.

Malaria

Each year about 1 million people die from Malaria.  Common symptoms include fever, chills, headache. Sweats, and fatigue. Malaria is a serious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that infects Anopheles mosquitoes which feeds on humans. Initial symptoms include high fever, shaking chills, headache and vomiting – symptoms that may be too  mild to be identified as malaria. If not treated within 24 hours, it can progress to severe illnesses that could lead to death.

The WHO estimates that malaria caused 207,000,000 clinical episodes and 627,000 deaths, mostly among African children,  in 2012. About 3.5 billion people from 167 countries live in areas at risk of malaria transmission.

24. Cholera  Due to the severe dehydration it causes, if left untreated Cholera can cause death within hours. In 1991 a major outbreak occurred in South America though currently few cases are known outside of Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting and leg cramping. Cholera is usually contracted through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholera. It has an incubation period of less than a day to five days and causes painless, watery diarrhea that quickly leads to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given.

Cholera remains a global problem and continues to be a challenge for countries where access to safe drinking water and sanitation is a problem.

25.  Typhoid Fever  Patients with typhoid fever sometimes demonstrate a rash of flat, rose-colored spots and a sustained fever of 103 to 104.

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Typhoid is contracted through contact with the S. Typhi bacteria, which is carried by humans in both their blood stream and stool. Over 400 cases occur in the US, 20% of those who contract it die. Typhoid fever is a serious and potentially fatal disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. This type of bacteria lives only in humans. People sick with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract and transmit the bacteria through their stool.

A person can get typhoid fever by drinking or eating food contaminated with Salmonella Typhi or if contaminated sewage gets into the water used for drinking or washing dishes.

Typhoid fever symptoms include high fever, weakness, headache, stomach pains or loss of appetite. Typhoid fever is determined by testing the presence of Salmonella Typhi in the stool or blood of an infected person. Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics.

26. SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and the MERS VIRUS A new Pneumonia disease that emerged in China in 2003. After news of the outbreak of SARS China tried to silence news about it both internal and international news , SARS spread rapidly, reaching neighboring countries Hong Kong and Vietnam in late February 2003, and then to other countries via international travelers.Canada Had a outbreak that was fairly well covered and cost Canada quite a bit financially

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The last case of this epidemic occurred in June 2003. In that outbreak, 8069 cases arise that killed 775 people. There is speculation that this disease is Man-Made SARS, SARS has symptoms of flu and may include: fever, cough, sore throat and other non-specific symptoms.

SuperBug-Virus

The only symptom that is common to all patients was fever above 38 degrees Celsius. Shortness of breath may occur later. There is currently no vaccine for the disease so that countermeasures can only assist the breathing apparatus. The virus was said to be the Virus of the End Times

27.  MERS(Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome) The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), also termed EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC/2012), is positive-sense, single-stranded RNA novel species of the genus Betacoronavirus.

MERS-CoV

First called novel coronavirus 2012 or simply novel coronavirus, it was first reported in 2012 after genome sequencing of a virus isolated from sputum samples from patients who fell ill in a 2012 outbreak of a new flu.

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As of June 2014, MERS-CoV cases have been reported in 22 countries, including Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Jordan, Qatar, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Algeria, Bangladesh, the Philippines (still MERS-free), Indonesia (none was confirmed), the United Kingdom, and the United States. Almost all cases are somehow linked to Saudi Arabia. In the same article it was reported that Saudi authorities’ errors in response to MERS-CoV were a contributing factor to the spread of this deadly virus.

27. Enterovirus (Brain Inflammation) Entero virus is a disease of the hands, feet and mouth, and we can not ignored occasional Brain Inflammation. Enterovirus attack symptoms are very similar to regular flu symptoms so its difficult to detect it, such as fever, sometimes accompanied by dizziness and weakness and pain.

Next will come the little red watery bumps on the palms and feet following oral thrush. In severe conditions, Enterovirus can attack the nerves and brain tissue to result in death.

The virus is easily spread through direct contact with patients. Children are the main victims of the spread of enterovirus in China. Since the first victim was found but reporting was delayed until several weeks later.

24 thousand people have contracted the enterovirus. More than 30 of them died mostly children. The virus is reported to have entered Indonesia and infecting three people in Sumatra.  2014Enterovirus 68 is presently spreading across North America mainly and started in the USA has probably spread to Canada and Mexico by now. Enterovirus 68’s spread is unprecedented up till now

28.  The Black Plague  The 1918 flu virus and HIV are the biggest killers of modern times. But back in the 14th century, the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, or the Black Death as it was also known, was the baddest bug of all. In just a few years, from 1347 to 1351, the plague killed off about 75,000,000 people worldwide, including one-third of the entire population of Europe at that time.

Carrying away the victims of plague

It spread through Asia, Italy, North Africa, Spain, Normandy, Switzerland, and eastward into Hungary. After a brief break, it crossed into England, Scotland, and then to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and Greenland.

the plague bacterium

Yersinia pestis, the plague bacteria
Courtesy of Neal Chamberlain

The plague bacterium is called Yersinia <yer-sin-ee-uh> pestis. There are two main forms of the disease. In the bubonic <boo-bah-nick> form, the bacteria cause painful swellings as large as an orange to form in the armpits, neck and groin. These swellings, or buboes, often burst open, oozing blood and pus. Blood vessels leak blood that puddles under the skin, giving the skin a blackened look. That’s why the disease became known as the Black Death. At least half of its victims die within a week.

The pneumonic <new-mon-ick> form of plague causes victims to sweat heavily and cough up blood that starts filling their lungs. Almost no one survived it during the plague years. Yersinia pestis is the deadliest microbe we’ve ever known, although HIV might catch up to it. Yersinia pestis is still around in the world. Fortunately, with bacteria-killing antibiotics and measures to control the pests—rats and mice—that spread the bacteria, we’ve managed to conquer this killer.

29. Human Papillomavirus  Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Like all papillomaviruses, HPVs establish productive infections only in keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes.

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Most HPV infections are subclinical and will cause no physical symptoms; however, in some people subclinical infections will become clinical and may cause benign papillomas (such as warts [verrucae] or squamous cell papilloma), or cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus.HPV has been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, HPV 16 and 18 infections are a cause of a unique type of oropharyngeal (throat) cancer and are believed to cause 70% of cervical cancer, which have available vaccines, see HPV vaccine.

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More than 30 to 40 types of HPV are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Some sexually transmitted HPV types may cause genital warts. Persistent infection with "high-risk" HPV types—different from the ones that cause skin warts—may progress to precancerous lesions and invasive cancer. High-risk HPV infection is a cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer.However, most infections do not cause disease.

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Seventy percent of clinical HPV infections, in young men and women, may regress to subclinical in one year and ninety percent in two years. However, when the subclinical infection persists—in 5% to 10% of infected women—there is high risk of developing precancerous lesions of the vulva and cervix, which can progress to invasive cancer. Progression from subclinical to clinical infection may take years; providing opportunities for detection and treatment of pre-cancerous lesions.

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In more developed countries, cervical screening using a Papanicolaou (Pap) test or liquid-based cytology is used to detect abnormal cells that may develop into cancer. If abnormal cells are found, women are invited to have a colposcopy. During a colposcopic inspection, biopsies can be taken and abnormal areas can be removed with a simple procedure, typically with a cauterizing loop or, more commonly in the developing world—by freezing (cryotherapy).

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Treating abnormal cells in this way can prevent them from developing into cervical cancer. Pap smears have reduced the incidence and fatalities of cervical cancer in the developed world, but even so there were 11,000 cases and 3,900 deaths in the U.S. in 2008. Cervical cancer has substantial mortality worldwide, there are an estimated 490,000 cases and 270,000 deaths each year.

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It is true that infections caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are not fatal, but chronic infection may result in cervical cancer. Apparently, HPV is responsible for almost all cervical cancers (approx. 99%). HPV results in 275,000 deaths per year.

30. Henipaviruses The genus Henipavirus comprises of 3 members which are Hendra virus (HeV), Nipah virus (NiV), and Cedar virus (CedPV). The second one was introduced in the middle of 2012, although affected no human, and is therefore considered harmless. The rest of the two viruses, however, are lethal with mortality rate up to 50-100%.

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Hendra virus (originally Equine morbillivirus) was discovered in September 1994 when it caused the deaths of thirteen horses, and a trainer at a training complex in Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane in Queensland, Australia.

The index case, a mare, was housed with 19 other horses after falling ill, and died two days later. Subsequently, all of the horses became ill, with 13 dying. The remaining 6 animals were subsequently euthanized as a way of preventing relapsing infection and possible further transmission.The trainer, Victory (‘Vic’) Rail, and a stable hand were involved in nursing the index case, and both fell ill with an influenza-like illness within one week of the first horse’s death. The stable hand recovered while Mr Rail died of respiratory and renal failure. The source of the virus was most likely frothy nasal discharge from the index case.

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A second outbreak occurred in August 1994 (chronologically preceding the first outbreak) in Mackay 1,000 km north of Brisbane resulting in the deaths of two horses and their owner. The owner, Mark Preston, assisted in necropsies of the horses and within three weeks was admitted to hospital suffering from meningitis. Mr Preston recovered, but 14 months later developed neurologic signs and died. This outbreak was diagnosed retrospectively by the presence of Hendra virus in the brain of the patient.pathogens-02-00264-g002-1024

A survey of wildlife in the outbreak areas was conducted, and identified pteropid fruit bats as the most likely source of Hendra virus, with a seroprevalence of 47%. All of the other 46 species sampled were negative. Virus isolations from the reproductive tract and urine of wild bats indicated that transmission to horses may have occurred via exposure to bat urine or birthing fluids.  However, the only attempt at experimental infection reported in the literature, conducted at CSIRO Geelong, did not result in infection of a horse from infected flying foxes. This study looked at potential infection between bats, horses and cats, in various combinations. The only species that was able to infect horses was the cat (Felix spp.)

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Nipah virus was identified in April 1999, when it caused an outbreak of neurological and respiratory disease on pig farms in peninsular Malaysia, resulting in 257 human cases, including 105 human deaths and the culling of one million pigs.  In Singapore, 11 cases, including one death, occurred in abattoir workers exposed to pigs imported from the affected Malaysian farms. The Nipah virus has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a Category C agent. The name "Nipah" refers to the place, Kampung Baru Sungai Nipah in Negeri Sembilan State, Malaysia, the source of the human case from which Nipah virus was first isolated.

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The outbreak was originally mistaken for Japanese encephalitis (JE), however, physicians in the area noted that persons who had been vaccinated against JE were not protected, and the number of cases among adults was unusual Despite the fact that these observations were recorded in the first month of the outbreak, the Ministry of Health failed to react accordingly, and instead launched a nationwide campaign to educate people on the dangers of JE and its vector, Culex mosquitoes.

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Symptoms of infection from the Malaysian outbreak were primarily encephalitic in humans and respiratory in pigs. Later outbreaks have caused respiratory illness in humans, increasing the likelihood of human-to-human transmission and indicating the existence of more dangerous strains of the virus. Based on seroprevalence data and virus isolations, the primary reservoir for Nipah virus was identified as Pteropid fruit bats, including Pteropus vampyrus (Large Flying Fox), and Pteropus hypomelanus (Small flying fox), both of which occur in Malaysia.

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The transmission of Nipah virus from flying foxes to pigs is thought to be due to an increasing overlap between bat habitats and piggeries in peninsular Malaysia. At the index farm, fruit orchards were in close proximity to the piggery, allowing the spillage of urine, feces and partially eaten fruit onto the pigs. Retrospective studies demonstrate that viral spillover into pigs may have been occurring in Malaysia since 1996 without detection. During 1998, viral spread was aided by the transfer of infected pigs to other farms, where new outbreaks occurred.

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Cedar Virus (CedPV) was first identified in pteropid urine during work on Hendra virus undertaken in Queensland in 2009. Although the virus is reported to be very similar to both Hendra and Nipah, it does not cause illness in laboratory animals usually susceptible to paramyxoviruses. Animals were able to mount an effective response and create effective antibodies.3273481_pone.0027918.g003

The scientists who identified the virus report:

Hendra and Nipah viruses are 2 highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses that have emerged from bats within the last two decades. Both are capable of causing fatal disease in both humans and many mammal species. Serological and molecular evidence for henipa-like viruses have been reported from numerous locations including Asia and Africa, however, until now no successful isolation of these viruses have been reported. This paper reports the isolation of a novel paramyxovirus, named Cedar virus, from fruit bats in Australia. Full genome sequencing of this virus suggests a close relationship with the henipaviruses.
 
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Antibodies to Cedar virus were shown to cross react with, but not cross neutralize Hendra or Nipah virus. Despite this close relationship, when Cedar virus was tested in experimental challenge models in ferrets and guinea pigs, we identified virus replication and generation of neutralizing antibodies, but no clinical disease was observed. As such, this virus provides a useful reference for future reverse genetics experiments to determine the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of the henipaviruses.

30. Lyssaviruses  This genus comprises of not only rabies virus (causing death of almost everyone who is infected) but certain other viruses such as Duvenhage virus, Mokola virus, and Australian bat lyssavirus. Although small number of cases are reported, but the ones reported have always been fatal. Bats are vectors for all of these types except for Mokola virus.

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Lyssavirus (from Lyssa, the Greek goddess of madness, rage, and frenzy) is a genus of viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, in the order Mononegavirales. This group of RNA viruses includes the rabies virus traditionally associated with the disease. Viruses typically have either helical or cubic symmetry. Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, so their infectious particles are approximately cylindrical in shape. This is typical of plant-infecting viruses. Human-infecting viruses more commonly have cubic symmetry and take shapes approximating regular polyhedra. The structure consists of a spiked outer envelope, a middle region consisting of matrix protein M, and an inner ribonucleocapsid complex region, consisting of the genome associated with other proteins.

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Lyssavirus genome consists of a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes five viral proteins: polymerase L, matrix protein M, phosphoprotein P, nucleoprotein N, and glycoprotein G.

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Based on recent phylogenetic evidence, lyssa viruses are categorized into seven major species. In addition, five species recently have been discovered: West Caucasian bat virus, Aravan virus, Khuj and virus, Irkut virus and Shimoni bat virus. The major species include rabies virus (species 1), Lagos bat virus (species 2), Mokola virus (species 3), Duvenhage virus (species 4), European Bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (species 5 and 6), and Australian bat lyssavirus (species 7).83980497

Based on biological properties of the viruses, these species are further subdivided into phylogroups 1 and 2. Phylogroup 1 includes genotypes 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7, while phylogroup 2 includes genotypes 2 and 3. The nucleocapsid region of lyssavirus is fairly highly conserved from genotype to genotype across both phylogroups; however, experimental data have shown the lyssavirus strains used in vaccinations are only from the first species(i.e. classic rabies).

31. Tuberculosis  Mucous, fever, fatigue, excessive sweating and weight loss. What do they all have in common?

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They are symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, or TB. TB is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs, but it may spread to other organs. The symptoms of this disease can remain stagnant for years or affect the person right away. People at higher risk for contracting TB include the elderly, infants and those with weakened immune systems due to other diseases, such as AIDS or diabetes, or even individuals who have undergone chemotherapy.

Being around others who may have TB, maintaining a poor diet or living in unsanitary conditions are all risk factors for contracting TB. In the United States, there are approximately 10 cases of TB per 100,000 people. Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, and in many cases fatal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air. Most infections do not have symptoms, known as latent tuberculosis. About one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected.

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The classic symptoms of active TB infection are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss (the latter giving rise to the formerly common term for the disease, "consumption"). Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of body fluids.

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Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or blood tests. Treatment is difficult and requires administration of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Social contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infections. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.

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One-third of the world’s population is thought to have been infected with M. tuberculosis, with new infections occurring in about 1% of the population each year.In 2007, an estimated 13.7 million chronic cases were active globally, while in 2010, an estimated 8.8 million new cases and 1.5 million associated deaths occurred, mostly in developing countries. The absolute number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing since 2006, and new cases have decreased since 2002.

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The rate of tuberculosis in different areas varies across the globe; about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries tests positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5–10% of the United States population tests positive. More people in the developing world contract tuberculosis because of a poor immune system, largely due to high rates of HIV infection and the corresponding development of AIDS.

32. Encephalitis Virus Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. Victims are usually exposed to viruses resulting in encephalitis by insect bites or food and drink. The most frequently encountered agents are arboviruses (carried by mosquitoes or ticks) and enteroviruses ( coxsackievirus, poliovirus and echovirus ). Some of the less frequent agents are measles, rabies, mumps, varicella and herpes simplex viruses.

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Patients with encephalitis suffer from fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, drowsiness and photophobia. The symptoms of encephalitis are caused by brain’s defense mechanisms being activated to get rid of infection (brain swelling, small bleedings and cell death). Neurologic examination usually reveals a stiff neck due to the irritation of the meninges covering the brain. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluidCerebrospinal fluid CSF in short, is the clear fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space (the space between the skull and cortex of the brain). It acts as a "cushion" or buffer for the cortex.

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Also, CSF occupies the ventricular system of the brain and the obtained by a lumbar puncture In medicine, a lumbar puncture (colloquially known as a spinal tap is a diagnostic procedure that is done to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for biochemical, microbiological and cytological analysis. Indications The most common indication for procedure reveals increased amounts of proteins and white blood cells with normal glucose. A CT scan examination is performed to reveal possible complications of brain swelling, brain abscess Brain abscess (or cerebral abscess) is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material coming from local (ear infection, infection of paranasal sinuses, infection of the mastoid air cells of the temporal bone, epidural abscess) or re or bleeding. Lumbar puncture procedure is performed only after the possibility of a prominent brain swelling is excluded by a CT scan examination.

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What are the main Symptoms?
Some patients may have symptoms of a cold or stomach infection before encephalitis symptoms begin.
When a case of encephalitis is not very severe, the symptoms may be similar to those of other illnesses, including:
• Fever that is not very high
• Mild headache
• Low energy and a poor appetite
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Other symptoms include:
• Clumsiness, unsteady gait
• Confusion, disorientation
• Drowsiness
• Irritability or poor temper control
• Light sensitivity
• Stiff neck and back (occasionally)
• Vomiting
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Symptoms in newborns and younger infants may not be as easy to recognize:
• Body stiffness
• Irritability and crying more often (these symptoms may get worse when the baby is picked up)
• Poor feeding
• Soft spot on the top of the head may bulge out more
• Vomiting
Encephalitis

• Loss of consciousness, poor responsiveness, stupor, coma
• Muscle weakness or paralysis
• Seizures
• Severe headache
• Sudden change in mental functions:
• "Flat" mood, lack of mood, or mood that is inappropriate for the situation
• Impaired judgment
• Inflexibility, extreme self-centeredness, inability to make a decision, or withdrawal from social interaction
• Less interest in daily activities
• Memory loss (amnesia), impaired short-term or long-term memory

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Children and adults should avoid contact with anyone who has encephalitis.
Controlling mosquitoes (a mosquito bite can transmit some viruses) may reduce the chance of some infections that can lead to encephalitis.
• Apply an insect repellant containing the chemical, DEET when you go outside (but never use DEET products on infants younger than 2 months).
• Remove any sources of standing water (such as old tires, cans, gutters, and wading pools).
• Wear long-sleeved shirts and pants when outside, particularly at dusk.
Vaccinate animals to prevent encephalitis caused by the rabies virus.

 

33. Chicken Pox Virus Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).It usually starts with a vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than on the limbs. The rash develops into itchy, raw pockmarks, which mostly heal without scarring. On examination, the observer typically finds skin lesions at various stages of healing and also ulcers in the oral cavity and tonsil areas. The disease is most commonly observed in children.

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Chickenpox is an airborne disease which spreads easily through coughing or sneezing by ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash. A person with chickenpox is infectious one to two days before the rash appears. They remain contagious until all lesions have crusted over (this takes approximately six days). Immunocompromised patients are contagious during the entire period as new lesions keep appearing. Crusted lesions are not contagious.Chickenpox has been observed in other primates, including chimpanzees and gorillas.

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The origin of the term chicken pox, which is recorded as being used since 1684,is not reliably known. It has been said to be a derived from chickpeas, based on resemblance of the vesicles to chickpeas, or to come from the rash resembling chicken pecks. Other suggestions include the designation chicken for a child (i.e., literally ‘child pox’), a corruption of itching-pox, or the idea that the disease may have originated in chickens. Samuel Johnson explained the designation as "from its being of no very great danger."

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The early (prodromal) symptoms in adolescents and adults are nausea, loss of appetite, aching muscles, and headache. This is followed by the characteristic rash or oral sores, malaise, and a low-grade fever that signal the presence of the disease. Oral manifestations of the disease (enanthem) not uncommonly may precede the external rash (exanthem). In children the illness is not usually preceded by prodromal symptoms, and the first sign is the rash or the spots in the oral cavity. The rash begins as small red dots on the face, scalp, torso, upper arms and legs; progressing over 10–12 hours to small bumps, blisters and pustules; followed by umbilication and the formation of scabs.

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At the blister stage, intense itching is usually present. Blisters may also occur on the palms, soles, and genital area. Commonly, visible evidence of the disease develops in the oral cavity & tonsil areas in the form of small ulcers which can be painful or itchy or both; this enanthem (internal rash) can precede the exanthem (external rash) by 1 to 3 days or can be concurrent. These symptoms of chickenpox appear 10 to 21 days after exposure to a contagious person. Adults may have a more widespread rash and longer fever, and they are more likely to experience complications, such as varicella pneumonia.Because watery nasal discharge containing live virus usually precedes both exanthem (external rash) and enanthem (oral ulcers) by 1 to 2 days, the infected person actually becomes contagious one to two days prior to recognition of the disease. Contagiousness persists until all vesicular lesions have become dry crusts (scabs), which usually entails four or five days, by which time nasal shedding of live virus also ceases.

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Chickenpox is rarely fatal, although it is generally more severe in adult men than in women or children. Non-immune pregnant women and those with a suppressed immune system are at highest risk of serious complications. Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) associated with chickenpox in the previous year accounts for nearly one third of childhood AIS. The most common late complication of chickenpox is shingles (herpes zoster), caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus decades after the initial, often childhood, chickenpox infection.

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Shingles  Herpes zoster After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body’s nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, but later in life, usually as an adult, it can be reactivated and cause a different form of the viral infection called shingles (scientifically known as herpes zoster). The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) suggests that any adult over the age of 60 years gets the herpes zoster vaccine as a part of their normal medical check ups.

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Many adults who have had chickenpox as children are susceptible to shingles as adults, often with the accompanying condition postherpetic neuralgia, a painful condition that makes it difficult to sleep. Even after the shingles rash has gone away, there can be night pain in the area affected by the rash.Shingles affects one in five adults infected with chickenpox as children, especially those who are immune suppressed, particularly from cancer, HIV, or other conditions.

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However, stress can bring on shingles as well, although scientists are still researching the connection.Shingles are most commonly found in adults over the age of 60 who were diagnosed with chickenpox when they were under the age of 1.A shingles vaccine is available for adults over 50 who have had childhood chickenpox or who have previously had shingles.

34. POXVIRUS  Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) are viruses that can, as a family, infect both vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

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Four genera of poxviruses may infect humans: orthopox, parapox, yatapox, molluscipox. Orthopox: smallpox virus (variola), vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, monkeypox virus; Parapox: orf virus, pseudocowpox, bovine papular stomatitis virus; Yatapox: tanapox virus, yaba monkey tumor virus; Molluscipox: molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV).The most common are vaccinia (seen on Indian subcontinent) and molluscum contagiousum, but monkeypox infections are rising (seen in west and central African rainforest countries). Camelpox is a disease of camels caused by a virus of the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and the genus Orthopoxvirus. It causes skin lesions and a generalized infection. Approximately 25% of young camels that become infected will die from the disease, while infection in older camels is generally more mild.

Poxvirus model in section (Pov_Ray)

The ancestor of the poxviruses is not known but structural studies suggest it may have been an adenovirus or a species related to both the poxviruses and the adenoviruses. Based on the genome organization and DNA replication mechanism it seems that phylogenetic relationships may exist between the rudiviruses (Rudiviridae) and the large eukaryal DNA viruses: the African swine fever virus (Asfarviridae), Chlorella viruses (Phycodnaviridae) and poxviruses (Poxviridae).The mutation rate in these genomes has been estimated to be 0.9-1.2 x 10−6 substitutions per site per year.A second estimate puts this rate at 0.5-7 × 10−6 nucleotide substitutions per site per year.  A third estimate places the rate at 4-6 × 10−6.

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The last common ancestor of the extant poxviruses that infect vertebrates existed 0.5 million years ago. The genus Avipoxvirus diverged from the ancestor 249 ± 69 thousand years ago. The ancestor of the genus Orthopoxvirus was next to diverge from the other clades at 0.3 million years ago. A second estimate of this divergence time places this event at 166,000 ± 43,000 years ago. The division of the Orthopox into the extant genera occurred ~14,000 years ago. The genus Leporipoxvirus diverged ~137,000 ± 35,000 years ago. This was followed by the ancestor of the genus Yatapoxvirus. The last common ancestor of the Capripoxvirus and Suipoxvirus diverged 111,000 ± 29,000 years ago.

Poxvirus Pov-Ray model 2

A model of a poxvirus cut-away in
cross-section to show the internal
structures. Poxviruses are shaped like
flattened capsules/barrels or are lens or
pill-shaped.

Poxvirus Pov-Ray model 3

Their structure is complex,
neither icosahedral nor helical. This
model is based on Vaccinia, the smallpox
virus. The structures are also highly
variable and often incompletely studied.

 

35. West Nile Virus  West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae.

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This flavivirus is found in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It was first identified in the West Nile subregion in the East African nation of Uganda in 1937. Prior to the mid-1990s, WNV disease occurred only sporadically and was considered a minor risk for humans, until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996, with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease. WNV has now spread globally, with the first case in the Western Hemisphere being identified in New York City in 1999; over the next five years, the virus spread across the continental United States, north into Canada, and southward into the Caribbean islands and Latin America. WNV also spread to Europe, beyond the Mediterranean Basin, and a new strain of the virus was identified in Italy in 2012. WNV is now considered to be an endemic pathogen in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and in the United States, which in 2012 has experienced one of its worst epidemics. In 2012, WNV killed 286 people in the United States, with the state of Texas being hard hit by this virus, making the year the deadliest on record for the United States.

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The main mode of WNV transmission is via various species of mosquitoes, which are the prime vector, with birds being the most commonly infected animal and serving as the prime reservoir host—especially passerines, which are of the largest order of birds, Passeriformes. WNV has been found in various species of ticks, but current research suggests they are not important vectors of the virus. WNV also infects various mammal species, including humans, and has been identified in reptilian species, including alligators and crocodiles, and also in amphibians. Not all animal species that are susceptible to WNV infection, including humans, and not all bird species develop sufficient viral levels to transmit the disease to uninfected mosquitoes, and are thus not considered major factors in WNV transmission.

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Approximately 80% of West Nile virus infections in humans are subclinical, which cause no symptoms. In the cases where symptoms do occur—termed West Nile fever in cases without neurological disease—the time from infection to the appearance of symptoms (incubation period) is typically between 2 and 15 days. Symptoms may include fever, headaches, fatigue, muscle pain or aches, malaise, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, myalgias and rash. Less than 1% of the cases are severe and result in neurological disease when the central nervous system is affected. People of advanced age, the very young, or those with immunosuppression, either medically induced, such as those taking immunosupressive drugs, or due to a pre-existing medical condition such as HIV infection, are most susceptible. The specific neurological diseases that may occur are West Nile encephalitis, which causes inflammation of the brain, West Nile meningitis, which causes inflammation of the meninges, which are the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, West Nile meningoencephalitis, which causes inflammation of the brain and also the meninges surrounding it, and West Nile poliomyelitis—spinal cord inflammation, which results in a syndrome similar to polio, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis.

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Currently, no vaccine against WNV infection is available. The best method to reduce the rates of WNV infection is mosquito control on the part of municipalities, businesses and individual citizens to reduce breeding populations of mosquitoes in public, commercial and private areas via various means including eliminating standing pools of water where mosquitoes breed, such as in old tires, buckets, unused swimming pools, etc. On an individual basis, the use of personal protective measures to avoid being bitten by an infected mosquito, via the use of mosquito repellent, window screens, avoiding areas where mosquitoes are more prone to congregate, such as near marshes, areas with heavy vegetation etc., and being more vigilant from dusk to dawn when mosquitoes are most active offers the best defense. In the event of being bitten by an infected mosquito, familiarity of the symptoms of WNV on the part of laypersons, physicians and allied health professions affords the best chance of receiving timely medical treatment, which may aid in reducing associated possible complications and also appropriate palliative care.

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The incubation period for WNV—the amount of time from infection to symptom onset—is typically from between 2 and 15 days. Headache can be a prominent symptom of WNV fever, meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, and it may or may not be present in poliomyelytis-like syndrome. Thus, headache is not a useful indicator of neuroinvasive disease.(CDC)

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  • West Nile virus encephalitis (WNE) is the most common neuroinvasive manifestation of WNND. WNE presents with similar symptoms to other viral encephalitis with fever, headaches, and altered mental status. A prominent finding in WNE is muscular weakness (30 to 50 percent of patients with encephalitis), often with lower motor neuron symptoms, flaccid paralysis, and hyporeflexia with no sensory abnormalities.
  • West Nile meningitis (WNM) usually involves fever, headache, and stiff neck. Pleocytosis, an increase of white blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid, is also present. Changes in consciousness are not usually seen and are mild when present.
  • West Nile meningoencephalitis is inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and meninges (meningitis).
  • West Nile poliomyelitis (WNP), an acute flaccid paralysis syndrome associated with WNV infection, is less common than WNM or WNE. This syndrome is generally characterized by the acute onset of asymmetric limb weakness or paralysis in the absence of sensory loss. Pain sometimes precedes the paralysis. The paralysis can occur in the absence of fever, headache, or other common symptoms associated with WNV infection. Involvement of respiratory muscles, leading to acute respiratory failure, can sometimes occur.
  • West-Nile reversible paralysis,. Like WNP, the weakness or paralysis is asymmetric. Reported cases have been noted to have an initial preservation of deep tendon reflexes, which is not expected for a pure anterior horn involvement.Disconnect of upper motor neuron influences on the anterior horn cells possibly by myelitis or glutamate excitotoxicity have been suggested as mechanisms.The prognosis for recovery is excellent.
  • Cutaneous manifestations specifically rashes, are not uncommon in WNV-infected patients; however, there is a paucity of detailed descriptions in case reports and there are few clinical images widely available. Punctate erythematous (?), macular, and papular eruptions, most pronounced on the extremities have been observed in WNV cases and in some cases histopathologic findings have shown a sparse superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate, a manifestation commonly seen in viral exanthems (?). A literature review provides support that this punctate rash is a common cutaneous presentation of WNV infection. (Anderson RC et al.)

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West Nile virus life cycle. After binding and uptake, the virion envelope fuses with cellular membranes, followed by uncoating of the nucleocapsid and release of the RNA genome into the cytoplasm. The viral genome serves as messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation of all viral proteins and as template during RNA replication. Copies are subsequently packaged within new virus particles that are transported in vesicles to the cell membrane.

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WNV is one of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic serocomplex of viruses. Image reconstructions and cryoelectron microscopy reveal a 45–50 nm virion covered with a relatively smooth protein surface. This structure is similar to the dengue fever virus; both belong to the genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae.

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The genetic material of WNV is a positive-sense, single strand of RNA, which is between 11,000 and 12,000 nucleotides long; these genes encode seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The RNA strand is held within a nucleocapsid formed from 12-kDa protein blocks; the capsid is contained within a host-derived membrane altered by two viral glycoproteins. Phylogenetic tree of West Nile viruses based on sequencing of the envelope gene during complete genome sequencing of the virus

Phylogenetic_tree_of_West_Nile_viruses

Studies of phylogenetic lineages determined WNV emerged as a distinct virus around 1000 years ago. This initial virus developed into two distinct lineages, lineage 1 and its multiple profiles is the source of the epidemic transmission in Africa and throughout the world. Lineage 2 was considered an Africa zoonosis. However, in 2008, lineage 2, previously only seen in horses in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, began to appear in horses in Europe, where the first known outbreak affected 18 animals in Hungary in 2008. Lineage 1 West Nile virus was detected in South Africa in 2010 in a mare and her aborted fetus; previously, only lineage 2 West Nile virus had been detected in horses and humans in South Africa. A 2007 fatal case in a killer whale in Texas broadened the known host range of West Nile virus to include cetaceans.

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The United States virus was very closely related to a lineage 1 strain found in Israel in 1998. Since the first North American cases in 1999, the virus has been reported throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America. There have been human cases and equine cases, and many birds are infected. The Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus, was the first nonhuman primate to contract WNV.  Both the United States and Israeli strains are marked by high mortality rates in infected avian populations; the presence of dead birds—especially Corvidae—can be an early indicator of the arrival of the virus.

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The West Nile virus maintains itself in nature by cycling between mosquitoes and certain species of birds. A mosquito (the vector) bites an uninfected bird (the host), the virus amplifies within the bird, an uninfected mosquito bites the bird and is in turn infected. Other species such as humans and horses are incidental infections, as they are not the mosquitoes’ preferred blood meal source. The virus does not amplify within these species and they are known as dead-end hosts.

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The West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted through female mosquitoes, which are the prime vectors of the virus. Only females feed on blood, and different species have evolved to take a blood meal on preferred types of vertebrate hosts. The infected mosquito species vary according to geographical area; in the United States, Culex pipiens (Eastern United States), Culex tarsalis (Midwest and West), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Southeast) are the main sources.The various species that transmit the WNV prefer birds of the Passeriformes order, the largest order of birds. Within that order there is further selectivity with various mosquito species exhibiting preference for different species. In the United States WNV mosquito vectors have shown definitive preference for members of the Corvidae and Thrush family of birds. Amongst the preferred species within these families are the American crow, a corvid, and the American robin (Turdus migratorius), a thrush.

The proboscis of a female mosquito—here a Southern House Mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus)—pierces the epidermis and dermis to allow it to feed on human blood from a capillary: this one is almost fully tumescent. The mosquito injects saliva, which contains an anesthetic, and an anticoagulant into the puncture wound; and in infected mosquitoes, the West Nile virus.

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The birds develop sufficient viral levels after being infected, to transmit the infection to other biting mosquitoes that in turn go on to infect other birds. In crows and robins, the infection is fatal in 4–5 days. This epizootic viral amplification cycle has been shown to peak 15–16 days before humans become ill. This may be due to the high mortality, and thus depletion of the preferred hosts, i.e., the specific bird species. The mosquitoes become less selective and begin feeding more readily on other animal types such as humans and horses which are considered incidental hosts.

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In mammals, the virus does not multiply as readily (i.e., does not develop high viremia during infection), and mosquitoes biting infected mammals are not believed to ingest sufficient virus to become infected,making mammals so-called dead-end hosts.

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Direct human-to-human transmission initially was believed to be caused only by occupational exposure, or conjunctive exposure to infected blood. The US outbreak identified additional transmission methods through blood transfusion,organ transplant intrauterine exposure, and breast feeding. Since 2003, blood banks in the United States routinely screen for the virus among their donors. As a precautionary measure, the UK’s National Blood Service initially ran a test for this disease in donors who donate within 28 days of a visit to the United States, Canada or the northeastern provinces of Italy and the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service asks prospective donors to wait 28 days after returning from North America or the northeastern provinces of Italy before donating.

West Nile Virus Replication

Recently, the potential for mosquito saliva to impact the course of WNV disease was demonstrated. Mosquitoes inoculate their saliva into the skin while obtaining blood. Mosquito saliva is a pharmacological cocktail of secreted molecules, principally proteins, that can affect vascular constriction, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, inflammation, and immunity. It clearly alters the immune response in a manner that may be advantageous to a virus. Studies have shown it can specifically modulate the immune response during early virus infection, and mosquito feeding can exacerbate WNV infection, leading to higher viremia and more severe forms of disease.

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Vertical transmission, the transmission of a viral or bacterial disease from the female of the species to her offspring, has been observed in various West Nile virus studies, amongst different species of mosquitoes in both the laboratory and in nature.Mosquito progeny infected vertically in autumn, may potentially serve as a mechanism for WNV to overwinter and initiate enzootic horizontal transmission the following spring.


35 of the Most Dangerous Viruses and Bacteria’s in the World Today

The Black Plague, Marburg, Ebola, Influenza, Enterovirus virus may all sound terrifying, but it’s not the most dangerous virus in the world. It isn’t HIV either. Here is a list of the most dangerous viruses and Bacteria’s on the Planet Earth.

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1. Marburg Virus The most dangerous virus is the Marburg virus. It is named after a small and idyllic town on the river Lahn – but that has nothing to do with the disease itself. The Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus. As with Ebola, the Marburg virus causes convulsions and bleeding of mucous membranes, skin and organs. It has a fatality rate of 90 percent.  The Marburg virus causes a rare, but severe hemorrhagic fever that has a fatality rate of 88%. It was first identified in 1967 when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever cropped up simultaneously in Marburg, where the disease got its name, Frankfurt in Germany and Belgrade, Serbia.

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Marburg and Ebola came from the Filoviridae family of viruses. They both have the capacity to cause dramatic outbreaks with the greatest fatality rates. It is transmitted to humans from fruit bats and spreads to humans through direct contact with the blood, secretions and other bodily fluids of infected humans. No anti-viral treatment or vaccine exists against the Marburg virus. In 1967, a group of lab workers in Germany (Marburg and Frankfurt) and Serbia (then Yugoslavia) contracted a new type of hemorrhagic fever from some virus-carrying African green monkeys that had been imported for research and development of polio vaccines. The Marburg virus is also BSL-4, and Marburg hemorrhagic fever has a 23 to 90 percent fatality rate. Spread through close human-to-human contact, symptoms start with a headache, fever, and a rash on the trunk, and progress to multiple organ failure and massive internal bleeding.

There is no cure, and the latest cases were reported out of Uganda at the end of 2012. An American tourist who had explored a Ugandan cave full of fruit bats known to be reservoirs of the virus contracted it and survived in 2008. (But not before bringing his sick self back to the U.S.)

2. Ebola Virus  There are five strains of the Ebola virus, each named after countries and regions in Africa: Zaire, Sudan, Tai Forest, Bundibugyo and Reston. The Zaire Ebola virus is the deadliest, with a mortality rate of 90 percent. It is the strain currently spreading through Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, and beyond. Scientists say flying foxes probably brought the Zaire Ebola virus into cities.

Typically less than 100 lives a year. UPDATE: A severe Ebola outbreak was detected in West Africa in March 2014. The number of deaths in this latest outbreak has outnumbered all other known cases from previous outbreaks combined. The World Health Organization is reporting nearly 2,000 deaths in this latest outbreak.
Once a person is infected with the virus, the disease has an incubation period of 2-21 days; however, some infected persons are asymptomatic. Initial symptoms are sudden malaise, headache, and muscle pain, progressing to high fever, vomiting, severe hemorrhaging (internally and out of the eyes and mouth) and in 50%-90% of patients, death, usually within days. The likelihood of death is governed by the virulence of the particular Ebola strain involved. Ebola virus is transmitted in body fluids and secretions; there is no evidence of transmission by casual contact. There is no vaccine and no cure.

Its melodic moniker may roll off the tongue, but if you contract the virus (above), that’s not the only thing that will roll off one of your body parts (a disturbing amount of blood coming out of your eyes, for instance). Four of the five known Ebola viral strains cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), which has killed thousands of people in sub-Saharan African nations since its discovery in 1976.

The deadly virus is named after the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo where it was first reported, and is classified as a CDC Biosafety Level 4, a.k.a. BSL-4, making it one of the most dangerous pathogens on the planet. It is thought to spread through close contact with bodily secretions. EHF has a 50 to 90 percent mortality rate, with a rapid onset of symptoms that start with a headache and sore throat and progress to major internal and external bleeding and multiple organ failure. There’s no known cure, and the most recent cases were reported at the end of 2012 in Uganda.

3. The Hantavirus describes several types of viruses. It is named after a river where American soldiers were first thought to have been infected with the Hantavirus, during the Korean War in 1950. Symptoms include lung disease, fever and kidney failure.

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Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a deadly disease transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva. Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in aerosolized virus. HPS was first recognized in 1993 and has since been identified throughout the United States. Although rare, HPS is potentially deadly. Rodent control in and around the home remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus infection. Also known as House Mouse Flu. The symptoms, which are very similar to HFRS, include tachycardia and tachypnea. Such conditions can lead to a cardiopulmonary phase, where cardiovascular shock can occur, and hospitalization of the patient is required.

There are many strains of hantavirus floating around (yep, it’s airborne) in the wake of rodents that carry the virus. Different strains, carried by different rodent species, are known to cause different types of illnesses in humans, most notably hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)—first discovered during the Korean War—and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), which reared its ugly head with a 1993 outbreak in the Southwestern United States. Severe HFRS causes acute kidney failure, while HPS gets you by filling your lungs with fluid (edema). HFRS has a mortality rate of 1 to 15 percent, while HPS is 38 percent. The U.S. saw its most recent outbreak of hantavirus—of the HPS variety—at Yosemite National Park in late 2012.

4. Avian Influenza Bird Flu The various strains of bird flu regularly cause panic – which is perhaps justified because the mortality rate is 70 percent. But in fact the risk of contracting the H5N1 strain – one of the best known – is quite low. You can only be infected through direct contact with poultry. It is said this explains why most cases appear in Asia, where people often live close to chickens.

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This form of the flu is common among birds (usually poultry) and infects humans through contact with secretions of an infected bird.

Although rare, those infected have a high incidence of death. Symptoms are like those of the more common human form of influenza.

Bird flu (H5N1) has receded from international headlines for the moment, as few human cases of the deadly virus have been reported this year. But when Dutch researchers recently created an even more transmissible strain of the virus in a laboratory for research purposes, they stirred grave concerns about what would happen if it escaped into the outside world. “Part of what makes H5N1 so deadly is that most people lack an immunity to it,” explains Marc Lipsitch, a professor of epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) who studies the spread of infectious diseases. “If you make a strain that’s highly transmissible between humans, as the Dutch team did, it could be disastrous if it ever escaped the lab.”

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H5N1 first made global news in early 1997 after claiming two dozen victims in Hong Kong. The virus normally occurs only in wild birds and farm-raised fowl, but in those isolated early cases, it made the leap from birds to humans. It then swept unimpeded through the bodies of its initial human victims, causing massive hemorrhages in the lungs and death in a matter of days. Fortunately, during the past 15 years, the virus has claimed only 400 victims worldwide—although the strain can jump species, it hasn’t had the ability to move easily from human to human, a critical limit to its spread.

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That’s no longer the case, however. In late 2011, the Dutch researchers announced the creation of an H5N1 virus transmissible through the air between ferrets (the best animal model for studying the impact of disease on humans). The news caused a storm of controversy in the popular press and heated debate among scientists over the ethics of the work. For Lipsitch and many others, the creation of the new strain was cause for alarm. “H5N1 influenza is already one of the most deadly viruses in existence,” he says. “If you make [the virus] transmissible [between humans], you have to be very concerned about what the resulting strain could do.”

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To put this danger in context, the 1918 “Spanish” flu—one of the most deadly influenza epidemics on record—killed between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide, or roughly 3 to 6 percent of those infected. The more lethal SARS virus (see “The SARS Scare,” March-April 2007, page 47) killed almost 10 percent of infected patients during a 2003 outbreak that reached 25 countries worldwide. H5N1 is much more dangerous, killing almost 60 percent of those who contract the illness.

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If a transmissible strain of H5N1 escapes the lab, says Lipsitch, it could spark a global health catastrophe. “It could infect millions of people in the United States, and very likely more than a billion people globally, like most successful flu strains do,” he says. “This might be one of the worst viruses—perhaps the worst virus—in existence right now because it has both transmissibility and high virulence.”

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Ironically, this is why Ron Fouchier, the Dutch virologist whose lab created the new H5N1 strain, argues that studying it in more depth is crucial. If the virus can be made transmissible in the lab, he reasons, it can also occur in nature—and researchers should have an opportunity to understand as much as possible about the strain before that happens.

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Lipsitch, who directs the Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics at HSPH, thinks the risks far outweigh the rewards. Even in labs with the most stringent safety requirements, such as enclosed rubber “space suits” to isolate researchers, accidents do happen. A single unprotected breath could infect a researcher, who might unknowingly spread the virus beyond the confines of the lab.

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In an effort to avoid this scenario, Lipsitch has been pushing for changes in research policy in the United States and abroad. (A yearlong, voluntary global ban on H5N1 research was lifted in many countries in January, and new rules governing such research in the United States were expected in February.) Lipsitch says that none of the current research proposals he has seen “would significantly improve our preparational response to a national pandemic of H5N1. The small risk of a very large public health disaster…is not worth taking [for] scientific knowledge without an immediate public health application.” His recent op-eds in scientific journals and the popular press have stressed the importance of regulating the transmissible strain and limiting work with the virus to only a handful of qualified labs. In addition, he argues, only technicians who have the right training and experience—and have been inoculated against the virus—should be allowed to handle it.

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These are simple limitations that could drastically reduce the danger of the virus spreading, he asserts, yet they’re still not popular with some researchers. He acknowledges that limiting research is an unusual practice scientifically but argues, “These are unusual circumstances.”

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Lipsitch thinks a great deal of useful research can still be done on the non-transmissible strain of the virus, which would provide valuable data without the risk of accidental release. In the meantime, he hopes to make more stringent H5N1 policies a priority for U.S. and foreign laboratories. Although it’s not a perfect solution, he says, it’s far better than a nightmare scenario.

5. Lassa Virus  A nurse in Nigeria was the first person to be infected with the Lassa virus. The virus is transmitted by rodents. Cases can be endemic – which means the virus occurs in a specific region, such as in western Africa, and can reoccur there at any time. Scientists assume that 15 percent of rodents in western Africa carry the virus.

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The Marburg virus under a microscope

This BSL-4 virus gives us yet another reason to avoid rodents. Lassa is carried by a species of rat in West Africa called Mastomys. It’s airborne…at least when you’re hanging around the rat’s fecal matter. Humans, however, can only spread it through direct contact with bodily secretions. Lassa fever, which has a 15 to 20 percent mortality rate, causes about 5000 deaths a year in West Africa, particularly in Sierra Leone and Liberia.

It starts with a fever and some retrosternal pain (behind the chest) and can progress to facial swelling, encephalitis, mucosal bleeding and deafness. Fortunately, researchers and medical professionals have found some success in treating Lassa fever with an antiviral drug in the early stages of the disease.

6. The Junin Virus is associated with Argentine hemorrhagic fever. People infected with the virus suffer from tissue inflammation, sepsis and skin bleeding. The problem is that the symptoms can appear to be so common that the disease is rarely detected or identified in the first instance.

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A member of the genus Arenavirus, Junin virus characteristically causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). AHF leads to major alterations within the vascular, neurological and immune systems and has a mortality rate of between 20 and 30%.  Symptoms of the disease are conjunctivitis, purpura, petechia and occasional sepsis. The symptoms of the disease are relatively indistinct and may therefore be mistaken for a different condition.

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Since the discovery of the Junin virus in 1958, the geographical distribution of the pathogen, although still confined to Argentina, has risen. At the time of discovery, Junin virus was confined to an area of around 15,000 km². At the beginning of 2000, the distribution had risen to around 150,000 km². The natural hosts of Junin virus are rodents, particularly Mus musculus, Calomys spp. and Akodon azarae.

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Direct rodent to human transmission only transpires when contact is made with excrement of an infected rodent. This commonly occurs via ingestion of contaminated food or water, inhalation of particles within urine or via direct contact of broken skin with rodent excrement.

7. The Crimea-Congo Fever Virus is transmitted by ticks. It is similar to the Ebola and Marburg viruses in the way it progresses. During the first days of infection, sufferers present with pin-sized bleedings in the face, mouth and the pharynx.

Transmitted through tick bites this disease is endemic (consistently present)  in most countries of West Africa and the Middle East. Although rare, CCHF has a 30% mortality rate. The most recent outbreak of the disease was in 2005 in Turkey. The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a common disease transmitted by a tick-Bourne virus. The virus causes major hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with a fatality rate of up to 30%. It is chiefly transmitted to people through tick and livestock. Person-to-person transmission occurs through direct contact with the blood, secretions and other bodily fluids of an infected person. No vaccination exists for both humans and animals against CCHF.

8. The Machupo Virus is associated with Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, also known as black typhus. The infection causes high fever, accompanied by heavy bleedings. It progresses similar to the Junin virus. The virus can be transmitted from human to human, and rodents often the carry it.

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Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Ordog Fever, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease originating in Bolivia after infection by Machupo virus.BHF was first identified in 1963 as an ambisense RNA virus of the Arenaviridae family,by a research group led by Karl Johnson. The mortality rate is estimated at 5 to 30 percent.

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Due to its pathogenicity, Machupo virus requires Biosafety Level Four conditions, the highest level.In February and March 2007, some 20 suspected BHF cases (3 fatal) were reported to the El Servicio Departmental de Salud (SEDES) in Beni Department, Bolivia, and in February 2008, at least 200 suspected new cases (12 fatal) were reported to SEDES.In November 2011, a SEDES expert involved in a serosurvey to determine the extent of Machupo virus infections in the Department after the discovery of a second confirmed case near the departmental capital of Trinidad in November, 2011, expressed concern about expansion of the virus’ distribution outside the endemic zone in Mamoré and Iténez provinces.

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Bolivian hemorrhagic fever was one of three hemorrhagic fevers and one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological weapons before the nation suspended its biological weapons program. It was also under research by the Soviet Union, under the Biopreparat bureau.

9. Kyasanur Forest Virus  Scientists discovered the Kyasanur Forest Virus (KFD) virus in woodlands on the southwestern coast of India in 1955. It is transmitted by ticks, but scientists say it is difficult to determine any carriers. It is assumed that rats, birds and boars could be hosts. People infected with the virus suffer from high fever, strong headaches and muscle pain which can cause bleedings.

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The disease has a morbidity rate of 2-10%, and affects 100-500 people annually.The symptoms of the disease include a high fever with frontal headaches, followed by hemorrhagic symptoms, such as bleeding from the nasal cavity, throat, and gums, as well as gastrointestinal bleeding.An affected person may recover in two weeks time, but the convalescent period is typically very long, lasting for several months. There will be muscle aches and weakness during this period and the affected person is unable to engage in physical activities.

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There are a variety of animals thought to be reservoir hosts for the disease, including porcupines, rats, squirrels, mice and shrews. The vector for disease transmission is Haemaphysalis spinigera, a forest tick. Humans contract infection from the bite of nymphs of the tick.

Kyasanur Forest Disease Host

The disease was first reported from Kyasanur Forest of Karnataka in India in March 1957. The disease first manifested as an epizootic outbreak among monkeys killing several of them in the year 1957. Hence the disease is also locally known as Monkey Disease or Monkey Fever. The similarity with Russian Spring-summer encephalitis was noted and the possibility of migratory birds carrying the disease was raised. Studies began to look for the possible species that acted as reservoirs for the virus and the agents responsible for transmission. Subsequent studies failed to find any involvement of migratory birds although the possibility of their role in initial establishment was not ruled out. The virus was found to be quite distinctive and not closely related to the Russian virus strains.

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Antigenic relatedness is however close to many other strains including the Omsk hemorrhagic fever (OHF) and birds from Siberia have been found to show an antigenic response to KFD virus. Sequence based studies however note the distinctiveness of OHF.Early studies in India were conducted in collaboration with the US Army Medical Research Unit and this led to controversy and conspiracy theories.

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Subsequent studies based on sequencing found that the Alkhurma virus, found in Saudi Arabia is closely related. In 1989 a patient in Nanjianin, China was found with fever symptoms and in 2009 its viral gene sequence was found to exactly match with that of the KFD reference virus of 1957. This has however been questioned since the Indian virus shows variations in sequence over time and the exact match with the virus sequence of 1957 and the Chinese virus of 1989 is not expected.

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This study also found using immune response tests that birds and humans in the region appeared to have been exposed to the virus.Another study has suggested that the virus is recent in origin dating the nearest common ancestor of it and related viruses to around 1942, based on the estimated rate of sequence substitutions. The study also raises the possibility of bird involvement in long-distance transfer. It appears that these viruses diverged 700 years ago.

10. Dengue Fever is a constant threat. If you’re planning a holiday in the tropics, get informed about dengue. Transmitted by mosquitoes, dengue affects between 50 and 100 million people a year in popular holiday destinations such as Thailand and India. But it’s more of a problem for the 2 billion people who live in areas that are threatened by dengue fever.

25,000 Deaths a year Also known as ‘breakbone fever’ due to the extreme pain felt during fever, is an relatively new disease caused by one of four closely-related viruses. WHO estimates that a whopping 2.5 billion people (two fifths of the World’s population) are at risk from dengue. It puts the total number of infections at around 50 million per year, and is now epidemic in more than 100 countries.


Dengue viruses are transferred to humans through the bites of infective female Aedes mosquitoes. The dengue virus circulates in the blood of a human for two to seven days, during the same time they have the fever. It usually appears first on the lower limbs and the chest; in some patients, it spreads to cover most of the body. There may also be severe retro-orbital pain, (a pain from behind the eyes that is distinctive to Dengue infections), and gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting coffee-grounds-like congealed blood, or severe diarrhea.

The leading cause of death in the tropics and subtropics is the infection brought on by the dengue virus, which causes a high fever, severe headache, and, in the worst cases, hemorrhaging. The good news is that it’s treatable and not contagious. The bad news is there’s no vaccine, and you can get it easily from the bite of an infected mosquito—which puts at least a third of the world’s human population at risk. The CDC estimates that there are over 100 million cases of dengue fever each year. It’s a great marketing tool for bug spray.

11. HIV 3.1 Million Lives a Year Human Immunodeficiency Virus has claimed the lives of more than 25 million people since 1981. HIV gets to the immune system by infecting important cells, including helper cells called CD4+ T cells, plus macrophanges and dendritic cells. Once the virus has taken hold, it systematically kills these cells, damaging the infected person’s immunity and leaving them more at risk from infections.

The majority of people infected with HIV go on to develop AIDS. Once a patient has AIDS common infections and tumours normally controlled by the CD4+ T cells start to affect the person.  
In the latter stages of the disease, pneumonia and various types of herpes can infect the patient and cause death.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The term HIV/AIDS represents the entire range of disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus from early infection to late stage symptoms. During the initial infection, a person may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. This is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the illness progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections and tumors that do not usually affect people who have working immune systems.

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HIV is transmitted primarily via unprotected sexual intercourse (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Prevention of HIV infection, primarily through safe sex and needle-exchange programs, is a key strategy to control the spread of the disease. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. While antiretroviral treatment reduces the risk of death and complications from the disease, these medications are expensive and have side effects. Without treatment, the average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.

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Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. AIDS was first recognized by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause—HIV infection—was identified in the early part of the decade. Since its discovery, AIDS has caused an estimated 36 million deaths worldwide (as of 2012). As of 2012, approximately 35.3 million people are living with HIV globally. HIV/AIDS is considered a pandemic—a disease outbreak which is present over a large area and is actively spreading.

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HIV/AIDS has had a great impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination. The disease also has significant economic impacts. There are many misconceptions about HIV/AIDS such as the belief that it can be transmitted by casual non-sexual contact. The disease has also become subject to many controversies involving religion. It has attracted international medical and political attention as well as large-scale funding since it was identified in the 1980s

 

12. Rotavirus 61,000 Lives a Year  According to the WHO, this merciless virus causes the deaths of more than half a million children every year. In fact, by the age of five, virtually every child on the planet has been infected with the virus at least once. Immunity builds up with each infection, so subsequent infections are milder. However, in areas where adequate healthcare is limited the disease is often fatal. Rotavirus infection usually occurs through ingestion of contaminated stool.

Because the virus is able to live a long time outside of the host, transmission can occur through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or by coming into direct contact with contaminated surfaces, then putting hands in the mouth.
Once it’s made its way in, the rotavirus infects the cells that line the small intestine and multiplies. It emits an enterotoxin, which gives rise to gastroenteritis.

13. Smallpox   Officially eradicated – Due to it’s long history, it impossible to estimate the carnage over the millennia Smallpox localizes in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin, this results in a characteristic maculopapular rash, and later, raised fluid-filled blisters. It has an overall mortality rate of 30–35%. Smallpox is believed to have emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC. The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans per year during the closing years of the 18th century (including five reigning monarchs), and was responsible for a third of all blindness. Of all those infected, 20–60%—and over 80% of infected children—died from the disease.
Smallpox was responsible for an estimated 300–500 million deaths during the 20th century alone. In the early 1950s an estimated 50 million cases of smallpox occurred in the world each year.

As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year. After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in December 1979.
Smallpox is one of only two infectious diseases to have been eradicated by humans, the other being Rinderpest, which was unofficially declared eradicated in October 2010.

The virus that causes smallpox wiped out hundreds of millions of people worldwide over thousands of years. We can’t even blame it on animals either, as the virus is only carried by and contagious for humans. There are several different types of smallpox disease that result from an infection ranging from mild to fatal, but it is generally marked by a fever, rash, and blistering, oozing pustules that develop on the skin. Fortunately, smallpox was declared eradicated in 1979, as the result of successful worldwide implementation of the vaccine.

14. Hepatitis B  521,000 Deaths a Year A third of the World’s population (over 2 billion people) has come in contact with this virus, including 350 million chronic carriers. In China and other parts of Asia, up to 10% of the adult population is chronically infected. The symptoms of acute hepatitis B include yellowing of the skin of eyes, dark urine, vomiting, nausea, extreme fatigue, and abdominal pain.

Luckily, more than 95% of people who contract the virus as adults or older children will make a full recovery and develop immunity to the disease. In other people, however, hepatitis B can bring on chronic liver failure due to cirrhosis or cancer.

Hepatitis B is an infectious illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects hominoidea, including humans. It was originally known as "serum hepatitis". Many people have no symptoms during the initial infected. Some develop an acute illness with vomiting, yellow skin, dark urine and abdominal pain. Often these symptoms last a few weeks and rarely result in death. It may take 30 to 180 days for symptoms to begin. Less than 10% of those infected develop chronic hepatitis B. In those with chronic disease cirrhosis and liver cancer may eventually develop.

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The virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious blood or body fluidsInfection around the time of birth is the most common way the disease is acquired in areas of the world where is common. In areas where the disease is uncommon intravenous drug use and sex are the most common routes of infection. Other risk factors include working in a healthcare setting, blood transfusions, dialysis, sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected person, travel in countries where it is common, and living in an institution.

Tattooing and acupuncture led to a significant number of cases in the 1980s; however, this has become less common with improved sterility. The hepatitis B viruses cannot be spread by holding hands, sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses, kissing, hugging, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding.  The hepatitis B virus is a hepadnavirushepa from hepatotropic (attracted to the liver) and dna because it is a DNA virus. The viruses replicate through an RNA intermediate form by reverse transcription, which in practice relates them to retroviruses.It is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV.

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The infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982. During the initial infected care is based on the symptoms present. In those who developed chronic disease antiviral medication such as tenofovir or interferon maybe useful, however are expensive.

About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives, including 350 million who are chronic carriers. Over 750,000 people die of hepatitis B a year. The disease has caused outbreaks in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is now only common in China. Between 5 and 10% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia have chronic disease. Research is in progress to create edible HBV vaccines in foods such as potatoes, carrots, and bananas.In 2004, an estimated 350 million individuals were infected worldwide. National and regional prevalence ranges from over 10% in Asia to under 0.5% in the United States and northern Europe. Routes of infection include vertical transmission (such as through childbirth), early life horizontal transmission (bites, lesions, and sanitary habits), and adult horizontal transmission (sexual contact, intravenous drug use).

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The primary method of transmission reflects the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in a given area. In low prevalence areas such as the continental United States and Western Europe, injection drug abuse and unprotected sex are the primary methods, although other factors may also be important. In moderate prevalence areas, which include Eastern Europe, Russia, and Japan, where 2–7% of the population is chronically infected, the disease is predominantly spread among children. In high-prevalence areas such as China and South East Asia, transmission during childbirth is most common, although in other areas of high endemicity such as Africa, transmission during childhood is a significant factor. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in areas of high endemicity is at least 8% with 10-15% prevalence in Africa/Far East. As of 2010, China has 120 million infected people, followed by India and Indonesia with 40 million and 12 million, respectively. According to World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 600,000 people die every year related to the infection. In the United States about 19,000 new cases occurred in 2011 down nearly 90% from 1990.

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Acute infection with hepatitis B virus is associated with acute viral hepatitis – an illness that begins with general ill-health, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, and dark urine, and then progresses to development of jaundice. It has been noted that itchy skin has been an indication as a possible symptom of all hepatitis virus types. The illness lasts for a few weeks and then gradually improves in most affected people. A few people may have more severe liver disease (fulminant hepatic failure), and may die as a result. The infection may be entirely asymptomatic and may go unrecognized.

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Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus either may be asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis), leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years. This type of infection dramatically increases the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). Across Europe hepatitis B and C cause approximately 50% of hepatocellular carcinomas. Chronic carriers are encouraged to avoid consuming alcohol as it increases their risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis B virus has been linked to the development of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN).

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Symptoms outside of the liver are present in 1–10% of HBV-infected people and include serum-sickness–like syndrome, acute necrotizing vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa), membranous glomerulonephritis, and papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti–Crosti syndrome). The serum-sickness–like syndrome occurs in the setting of acute hepatitis B, often preceding the onset of jaundice. The clinical features are fever, skin rash, and polyarteritis. The symptoms often subside shortly after the onset of jaundice, but can persist throughout the duration of acute hepatitis B.  About 30–50% of people with acute necrotizing vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa) are HBV carriers. HBV-associated nephropathy has been described in adults but is more common in children.Membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common form. Other immune-mediated hematological disorders, such as essential mixed cryoglobulinemia and aplastic anemia.

15. Influenza 500,000 Deaths a Year Influenza has been a prolific killer for centuries. The symptoms of influenza were first described more than 2,400 years ago by Hippocrates. Pandemics generally occur three times a century, and can cause millions of deaths. The most fatal pandemic on record was the Spanish flu outbreak in 1918, which caused between 20 million and 100 million deaths. In order to invade a host, the virus shell includes proteins that bind themselves to receptors on the outside of cells in the lungs and air passages of the victim. Once the virus has latched itself onto the cell it takes over so much of its machinery that the cell dies. Dead cells in the airways cause a runny nose and sore throat. Too many dead cells in the lungs causes death.

 
Vaccinations against the flu are common in developed countries. However, a vaccination that is effective one year may not necessarily work the next year, due to the way the rate at which a flu virus evolves and the fact that new strains will soon replace older ones. No virus can claim credit for more worldwide pandemics and scares than influenza.

The outbreak of the Spanish flu in 1918 is generally considered to be one of the worst pandemics in human history, infecting 20 to 40 percent of the world’s population and killing 50 million in the span of just two years. (A reconstruction of that virus is above.) The swine flu was its most recent newsmaker, when a 2009 pandemic may have seen as many as 89 million people infected worldwide.

Effective influenza vaccines exist, and most people easily survive infections. But the highly infectious respiratory illness is cunning—the virus is constantly mutating and creating new strains. Thousands of strains exist at any given time, many of them harmless, and vaccines available in the U.S. cover only about 40 percent of the strains at large each year.

16. Hepatitis C  56,000 Deaths a Year An estimated 200-300 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C.

 

Most people infected with hepatitis C don’t have any symptoms and feel fine for years. However, liver damage invariably rears its ugly head over time, often decades after first infection. In fact, 70% of those infected develop chronic liver disease, 15% are struck with cirrhosis and 5% can die from liver cancer or cirrhosis. In the USA, hepatitis C is the primary reason for liver transplants.

All-about-hepatitis-C

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure, liver cancer, or life-threatening esophageal and gastric varices.

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HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, and transfusions. An estimated 150–200 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C. The existence of hepatitis C (originally identifiable only as a type of non-A non-B hepatitis) was suggested in the 1970s and proven in 1989. Hepatitis C infects only humans and chimpanzees.

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The virus persists in the liver in about 85% of those infected. This chronic infection can be treated with medication: the standard therapy is a combination of peginterferon and ribavirin, with either boceprevir or telaprevir added in some cases. Overall, 50–80% of people treated are cured. Those who develop cirrhosis or liver cancer may require a liver transplant. Hepatitis C is the leading reason for liver transplantation, though the virus usually recurs after transplantation. No vaccine against hepatitis C is available.

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Hepatitis C infection causes acute symptoms in 15% of cases. Symptoms are generally mild and vague, including a decreased appetite, fatigue, nausea, muscle or joint pains, and weight loss and rarely does acute liver failure result. Most cases of acute infection are not associated with jaundice. The infection resolves spontaneously in 10–50% of cases, which occurs more frequently in individuals who are young and female.

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About 80% of those exposed to the virus develop a chronic infection.  This is defined as the presence of detectable viral replication for at least six months. Most experience minimal or no symptoms during the initial few decades of the infection.Chronic hepatitis C can be associated with fatigue and mild cognitive problems. Chronic infection after several years may cause cirrhosis or liver cancer. The liver enzymes are normal in 7–53%.  Late relapses after apparent cure have been reported, but these can be difficult to distinguish from reinfection.

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Fatty changes to the liver occur in about half of those infected and are usually present before cirrhosis develops.  Usually (80% of the time) this change affects less than a third of the liver. Worldwide hepatitis C is the cause of 27% of cirrhosis cases and 25% of hepatocellular carcinoma.  About 10–30% of those infected develop cirrhosis over 30 years. Cirrhosis is more common in those also infected with hepatitis B, schistosoma, or HIV, in alcoholics and in those of male gender. In those with hepatitis C, excess alcohol increases the risk of developing cirrhosis 100-fold.Those who develop cirrhosis have a 20-fold greater risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. This transformation occurs at a rate of 1–3% per year.  Being infected with hepatitis B in additional to hepatitis C increases this risk further.

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Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal hypertension, ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen), easy bruising or bleeding, varices (enlarged veins, especially in the stomach and esophagus), jaundice, and a syndrome of cognitive impairment known as hepatic encephalopathy. Ascites occurs at some stage in more than half of those who have a chronic infection.

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The most common problem due to hepatitis C but not involving the liver is mixed cryoglobulinemia (usually the type II form) — an inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels. Hepatitis C is also associated with Sjögren’s syndrome (an autoimmune disorder); thrombocytopenia; lichen planus; porphyria cutanea tarda; necrolytic acral erythema; insulin resistance; diabetes mellitus; diabetic nephropathy; autoimmune thyroiditis and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.  Thrombocytopenia is estimated to occur in 0.16% to 45.4% of people with chronic hepatitis C. 20–30% of people infected have rheumatoid factor — a type of antibody. Possible associations include Hyde’s prurigo nodularis and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Cardiomyopathy with associated arrhythmias has also been reported. A variety of central nervous system disorders have been reported.  Chronic infection seems to be associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer.

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Persons who have been infected with hepatitis C may appear to clear the virus but remain infected. The virus is not detectable with conventional testing but can be found with ultra-sensitive tests.The original method of detection was by demonstrating the viral genome within liver biopsies, but newer methods include an antibody test for the virus’ core protein and the detection of the viral genome after first concentrating the viral particles by ultracentrifugation. A form of infection with persistently moderately elevated serum liver enzymes but without antibodies to hepatitis C has also been reported. This form is known as cryptogenic occult infection.

Causes of hep C(4)

Several clinical pictures have been associated with this type of infection. It may be found in people with anti-hepatitis-C antibodies but with normal serum levels of liver enzymes; in antibody-negative people with ongoing elevated liver enzymes of unknown cause; in healthy populations without evidence of liver disease; and in groups at risk for HCV infection including those on haemodialysis or family members of people with occult HCV. The clinical relevance of this form of infection is under investigation. The consequences of occult infection appear to be less severe than with chronic infection but can vary from minimal to hepatocellular carcinoma.

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The rate of occult infection in those apparently cured is controversial but appears to be low 40% of those with hepatitis but with both negative hepatitis C serology and the absence of detectable viral genome in the serum have hepatitis C virus in the liver on biopsy.How commonly this occurs in children is unknown.
There is no cure, no vaccine.

17. Measle  197,000 Deaths a Year Measles, also known as Rubeola, has done a pretty good job of killing people throughout the ages. Over the last 150 years, the virus has been responsible for the deaths of around 200 million people. The fatality rate from measles for otherwise healthy people in developed countries is 3 deaths per thousand cases, or 0.3%. In underdeveloped nations with high rates of malnutrition and poor healthcare, fatality rates have been as high as 28%. In immunocompromised patients (e.g. people with AIDS) the fatality rate is approximately 30%.

During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii’s people. In 1875, measles killed over 40,000 Fijians, approximately one-third of the population. In the 19th century, the disease decimated the Andamanese population. In 1954, the virus causing the disease was isolated from an 11-year old boy from the United States, David Edmonston, and adapted and propagated on chick embryo tissue culture.


To date, 21 strains of the measles virus have been identified.

18. Yellow Fever  30,000 Deaths a Year. Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes and is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The only known hosts of the virus are primates and several species of mosquito. The origin of the disease is most likely to be Africa, from where it was introduced to South America through the slave trade in the 16th century. Since the 17th century, several major epidemics of the disease have been recorded in the Americas, Africa and Europe. In the 19th century, yellow fever was deemed one of the most dangerous infectious diseases.

Yellow fever presents in most cases with fever, nausea, and pain and it generally subsides after several days. In some patients, a toxic phase follows, in which liver damage with jaundice (giving the name of the disease) can occur and lead to death. Because of the increased bleeding tendency (bleeding diathesis), yellow fever belongs to the group of hemorrhagic fevers.

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Since the 1980s, the number of cases of yellow fever has been increasing, making it a reemerging disease Transmitted through infected mosquitoes, Yellow Fever is still a serious problem in countries all over the world and a serious health risk for travelers to Africa, South America and some areas in the Caribbean.  Fatality rates range from 15 to over 50%. Symptoms include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting and nausea.

Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic fever transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The yellow is in reference to the yellow color (jaundice) that affects some patients. The virus is endemic in tropical areas in Africa and South America.

The disease typically occurs in two phases. The first phase typically causes fever, headache, muscle pain and back pain, chills and nausea. Most patients recover from these symptoms while 15% progresses to the toxic second phase. High fever returns, jaundice becomes apparent, patient complains of abdominal pain with vomiting, and bleeding in the mouth, eyes, nose or stomach occurs. Blood appears in the stool or vomit and kidney function deteriorates. 50% of the patients that enter the toxic phase die within 10 to 14 days.

There is no treatment for yellow fever. Patients are only given supportive care for fever, dehydration and respiratory failure. Yellow fever is preventable through vaccination.

19. Rabies  55,000 Deaths a Year Rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. If there wasn’t a vaccine, this would be the most deadly virus on the list.

It is a zoonotic virus transmitted through the bite of an animal. The virus worms its way into the brain along the peripheral nerves. The incubation phase of the rabies disease can take up to several months, depending on how far it has to go to reach the central nervous system. It provokes acute pain, violent movements, depression, uncontrollable excitement, and inability to swallow water (rabies is often known as ‘hydrophobia’). After these symptoms subside the fun really starts as the infected person experiences periods of mania followed by coma then death, usually caused by respiratory insufficiency.

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Rabies has a long and storied history dating back to 2300 B.C., with records of Babylonians who went mad and died after being bitten by dogs. While this virus itself is a beast, the sickness it causes is now is wholly preventable if treated immediately with a series of vaccinations (sometimes delivered with a terrifyingly huge needle in the abdomen). We have vaccine inventor Louis Pasteur to thank for that.

Exposure to rabies these days, while rare in the U.S., still occurs as it did thousands of years ago—through bites from infected animals. If left untreated after exposure, the virus attacks the central nervous system and death usually results. The symptoms of an advanced infection include delirium, hallucinations and raging, violent behavior in some cases, which some have argued makes rabies eerily similar to zombification. If rabies ever became airborne, we might actually have to prepare for that zombie apocalypse after all.

21. Common Cold  No known cure The common cold is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with on average two to four infections a year in adults and up to 6–12 in children. Collectively, colds, influenza, and other infections with similar symptoms are included in the diagnosis of influenza-like illness.

They may also be termed upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Influenza involves the lungs while the common cold does not.
It’s annoying as hell, but there’s nothing to do but wave the white flag on this one.
Virus: Infinity. People: 0

22. Anthrax  Anthrax is a diseased caused by a bacterium called Bacillus Anthracis. There are three types of anthrax, skin, lung, and digestive. Anthrax has lately become a major world issue for its ability to become an epidemic and spread quickly and easily among people through contact with spores.

Anthrax

It is important to know that  Anthrax is not spread from person to person, but is through contact/handling of products containing spores. Flu like symptoms, nausea, and blisters are common symptoms of exposure. Inhalational anthrax and gastrointestinal anthrax are serious issue because of their high mortality rates ranging from 50 to 100%.

Anthrax is a severe infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. This type of bacteria produces spores that can live for years in the soil. Anthrax is more common in farm animals, though humans can get infected as well. Anthrax is not contagious. A person can get infected only when the bacteria gets into the skin, lungs or  digestive tract.

There are three types of anthrax: skin anthrax, inhalation anthrax and gastrointestinal anthrax. Skin anthrax symptoms include fever, muscle aches, headache, nausea and vomiting. Inhalation anthrax begins with flu-like symptoms, which progresses  with severe respiratory distress. Shock, coma and then death follows. Most patients do not recover even if given appropriate antibiotics due to the toxins released by the anthrax bacteria. Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms include fever, nausea, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea.

Anthrax is treated with antibiotics.

23. Malaria  Malaria is a mosquito-borne illness caused by parasite. Although malaria can be prevented and treated, it is often fatal.

Malaria

Each year about 1 million people die from Malaria.  Common symptoms include fever, chills, headache. Sweats, and fatigue. Malaria is a serious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that infects Anopheles mosquitoes which feeds on humans. Initial symptoms include high fever, shaking chills, headache and vomiting – symptoms that may be too  mild to be identified as malaria. If not treated within 24 hours, it can progress to severe illnesses that could lead to death.

The WHO estimates that malaria caused 207,000,000 clinical episodes and 627,000 deaths, mostly among African children,  in 2012. About 3.5 billion people from 167 countries live in areas at risk of malaria transmission.

24. Cholera  Due to the severe dehydration it causes, if left untreated Cholera can cause death within hours. In 1991 a major outbreak occurred in South America though currently few cases are known outside of Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting and leg cramping. Cholera is usually contracted through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholera. It has an incubation period of less than a day to five days and causes painless, watery diarrhea that quickly leads to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given.

Cholera remains a global problem and continues to be a challenge for countries where access to safe drinking water and sanitation is a problem.

25.  Typhoid Fever  Patients with typhoid fever sometimes demonstrate a rash of flat, rose-colored spots and a sustained fever of 103 to 104.

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Typhoid is contracted through contact with the S. Typhi bacteria, which is carried by humans in both their blood stream and stool. Over 400 cases occur in the US, 20% of those who contract it die. Typhoid fever is a serious and potentially fatal disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. This type of bacteria lives only in humans. People sick with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract and transmit the bacteria through their stool.

A person can get typhoid fever by drinking or eating food contaminated with Salmonella Typhi or if contaminated sewage gets into the water used for drinking or washing dishes.

Typhoid fever symptoms include high fever, weakness, headache, stomach pains or loss of appetite. Typhoid fever is determined by testing the presence of Salmonella Typhi in the stool or blood of an infected person. Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics.

26. SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and the MERS VIRUS A new Pneumonia disease that emerged in China in 2003. After news of the outbreak of SARS China tried to silence news about it both internal and international news , SARS spread rapidly, reaching neighboring countries Hong Kong and Vietnam in late February 2003, and then to other countries via international travelers.Canada Had a outbreak that was fairly well covered and cost Canada quite a bit financially

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The last case of this epidemic occurred in June 2003. In that outbreak, 8069 cases arise that killed 775 people. There is speculation that this disease is Man-Made SARS, SARS has symptoms of flu and may include: fever, cough, sore throat and other non-specific symptoms.

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The only symptom that is common to all patients was fever above 38 degrees Celsius. Shortness of breath may occur later. There is currently no vaccine for the disease so that countermeasures can only assist the breathing apparatus. The virus was said to be the Virus of the End Times

27.  MERS(Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome) The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), also termed EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC/2012), is positive-sense, single-stranded RNA novel species of the genus Betacoronavirus.

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First called novel coronavirus 2012 or simply novel coronavirus, it was first reported in 2012 after genome sequencing of a virus isolated from sputum samples from patients who fell ill in a 2012 outbreak of a new flu.

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As of June 2014, MERS-CoV cases have been reported in 22 countries, including Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Jordan, Qatar, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Algeria, Bangladesh, the Philippines (still MERS-free), Indonesia (none was confirmed), the United Kingdom, and the United States. Almost all cases are somehow linked to Saudi Arabia. In the same article it was reported that Saudi authorities’ errors in response to MERS-CoV were a contributing factor to the spread of this deadly virus.

27. Enterovirus (Brain Inflammation) Entero virus is a disease of the hands, feet and mouth, and we can not ignored occasional Brain Inflammation. Enterovirus attack symptoms are very similar to regular flu symptoms so its difficult to detect it, such as fever, sometimes accompanied by dizziness and weakness and pain.

Next will come the little red watery bumps on the palms and feet following oral thrush. In severe conditions, Enterovirus can attack the nerves and brain tissue to result in death.

The virus is easily spread through direct contact with patients. Children are the main victims of the spread of enterovirus in China. Since the first victim was found but reporting was delayed until several weeks later.

24 thousand people have contracted the enterovirus. More than 30 of them died mostly children. The virus is reported to have entered Indonesia and infecting three people in Sumatra.  2014Enterovirus 68 is presently spreading across North America mainly and started in the USA has probably spread to Canada and Mexico by now. Enterovirus 68’s spread is unprecedented up till now

28.  The Black Plague  The 1918 flu virus and HIV are the biggest killers of modern times. But back in the 14th century, the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, or the Black Death as it was also known, was the baddest bug of all. In just a few years, from 1347 to 1351, the plague killed off about 75,000,000 people worldwide, including one-third of the entire population of Europe at that time.

Carrying away the victims of plague

It spread through Asia, Italy, North Africa, Spain, Normandy, Switzerland, and eastward into Hungary. After a brief break, it crossed into England, Scotland, and then to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and Greenland.

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Yersinia pestis, the plague bacteria
Courtesy of Neal Chamberlain

The plague bacterium is called Yersinia <yer-sin-ee-uh> pestis. There are two main forms of the disease. In the bubonic <boo-bah-nick> form, the bacteria cause painful swellings as large as an orange to form in the armpits, neck and groin. These swellings, or buboes, often burst open, oozing blood and pus. Blood vessels leak blood that puddles under the skin, giving the skin a blackened look. That’s why the disease became known as the Black Death. At least half of its victims die within a week.

The pneumonic <new-mon-ick> form of plague causes victims to sweat heavily and cough up blood that starts filling their lungs. Almost no one survived it during the plague years. Yersinia pestis is the deadliest microbe we’ve ever known, although HIV might catch up to it. Yersinia pestis is still around in the world. Fortunately, with bacteria-killing antibiotics and measures to control the pests—rats and mice—that spread the bacteria, we’ve managed to conquer this killer.

29. Human Papillomavirus  Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Like all papillomaviruses, HPVs establish productive infections only in keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes.

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Most HPV infections are subclinical and will cause no physical symptoms; however, in some people subclinical infections will become clinical and may cause benign papillomas (such as warts [verrucae] or squamous cell papilloma), or cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus.HPV has been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, HPV 16 and 18 infections are a cause of a unique type of oropharyngeal (throat) cancer and are believed to cause 70% of cervical cancer, which have available vaccines, see HPV vaccine.

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More than 30 to 40 types of HPV are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Some sexually transmitted HPV types may cause genital warts. Persistent infection with "high-risk" HPV types—different from the ones that cause skin warts—may progress to precancerous lesions and invasive cancer. High-risk HPV infection is a cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer.However, most infections do not cause disease.

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Seventy percent of clinical HPV infections, in young men and women, may regress to subclinical in one year and ninety percent in two years. However, when the subclinical infection persists—in 5% to 10% of infected women—there is high risk of developing precancerous lesions of the vulva and cervix, which can progress to invasive cancer. Progression from subclinical to clinical infection may take years; providing opportunities for detection and treatment of pre-cancerous lesions.

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In more developed countries, cervical screening using a Papanicolaou (Pap) test or liquid-based cytology is used to detect abnormal cells that may develop into cancer. If abnormal cells are found, women are invited to have a colposcopy. During a colposcopic inspection, biopsies can be taken and abnormal areas can be removed with a simple procedure, typically with a cauterizing loop or, more commonly in the developing world—by freezing (cryotherapy).

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Treating abnormal cells in this way can prevent them from developing into cervical cancer. Pap smears have reduced the incidence and fatalities of cervical cancer in the developed world, but even so there were 11,000 cases and 3,900 deaths in the U.S. in 2008. Cervical cancer has substantial mortality worldwide, there are an estimated 490,000 cases and 270,000 deaths each year.

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It is true that infections caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are not fatal, but chronic infection may result in cervical cancer. Apparently, HPV is responsible for almost all cervical cancers (approx. 99%). HPV results in 275,000 deaths per year.

30. Henipaviruses The genus Henipavirus comprises of 3 members which are Hendra virus (HeV), Nipah virus (NiV), and Cedar virus (CedPV). The second one was introduced in the middle of 2012, although affected no human, and is therefore considered harmless. The rest of the two viruses, however, are lethal with mortality rate up to 50-100%.

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Hendra virus (originally Equine morbillivirus) was discovered in September 1994 when it caused the deaths of thirteen horses, and a trainer at a training complex in Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane in Queensland, Australia.

The index case, a mare, was housed with 19 other horses after falling ill, and died two days later. Subsequently, all of the horses became ill, with 13 dying. The remaining 6 animals were subsequently euthanized as a way of preventing relapsing infection and possible further transmission.The trainer, Victory (‘Vic’) Rail, and a stable hand were involved in nursing the index case, and both fell ill with an influenza-like illness within one week of the first horse’s death. The stable hand recovered while Mr Rail died of respiratory and renal failure. The source of the virus was most likely frothy nasal discharge from the index case.

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A second outbreak occurred in August 1994 (chronologically preceding the first outbreak) in Mackay 1,000 km north of Brisbane resulting in the deaths of two horses and their owner. The owner, Mark Preston, assisted in necropsies of the horses and within three weeks was admitted to hospital suffering from meningitis. Mr Preston recovered, but 14 months later developed neurologic signs and died. This outbreak was diagnosed retrospectively by the presence of Hendra virus in the brain of the patient.pathogens-02-00264-g002-1024

A survey of wildlife in the outbreak areas was conducted, and identified pteropid fruit bats as the most likely source of Hendra virus, with a seroprevalence of 47%. All of the other 46 species sampled were negative. Virus isolations from the reproductive tract and urine of wild bats indicated that transmission to horses may have occurred via exposure to bat urine or birthing fluids.  However, the only attempt at experimental infection reported in the literature, conducted at CSIRO Geelong, did not result in infection of a horse from infected flying foxes. This study looked at potential infection between bats, horses and cats, in various combinations. The only species that was able to infect horses was the cat (Felix spp.)

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Nipah virus was identified in April 1999, when it caused an outbreak of neurological and respiratory disease on pig farms in peninsular Malaysia, resulting in 257 human cases, including 105 human deaths and the culling of one million pigs.  In Singapore, 11 cases, including one death, occurred in abattoir workers exposed to pigs imported from the affected Malaysian farms. The Nipah virus has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a Category C agent. The name "Nipah" refers to the place, Kampung Baru Sungai Nipah in Negeri Sembilan State, Malaysia, the source of the human case from which Nipah virus was first isolated.

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The outbreak was originally mistaken for Japanese encephalitis (JE), however, physicians in the area noted that persons who had been vaccinated against JE were not protected, and the number of cases among adults was unusual Despite the fact that these observations were recorded in the first month of the outbreak, the Ministry of Health failed to react accordingly, and instead launched a nationwide campaign to educate people on the dangers of JE and its vector, Culex mosquitoes.

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Symptoms of infection from the Malaysian outbreak were primarily encephalitic in humans and respiratory in pigs. Later outbreaks have caused respiratory illness in humans, increasing the likelihood of human-to-human transmission and indicating the existence of more dangerous strains of the virus. Based on seroprevalence data and virus isolations, the primary reservoir for Nipah virus was identified as Pteropid fruit bats, including Pteropus vampyrus (Large Flying Fox), and Pteropus hypomelanus (Small flying fox), both of which occur in Malaysia.

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The transmission of Nipah virus from flying foxes to pigs is thought to be due to an increasing overlap between bat habitats and piggeries in peninsular Malaysia. At the index farm, fruit orchards were in close proximity to the piggery, allowing the spillage of urine, feces and partially eaten fruit onto the pigs. Retrospective studies demonstrate that viral spillover into pigs may have been occurring in Malaysia since 1996 without detection. During 1998, viral spread was aided by the transfer of infected pigs to other farms, where new outbreaks occurred.

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Cedar Virus (CedPV) was first identified in pteropid urine during work on Hendra virus undertaken in Queensland in 2009. Although the virus is reported to be very similar to both Hendra and Nipah, it does not cause illness in laboratory animals usually susceptible to paramyxoviruses. Animals were able to mount an effective response and create effective antibodies.3273481_pone.0027918.g003

The scientists who identified the virus report:

Hendra and Nipah viruses are 2 highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses that have emerged from bats within the last two decades. Both are capable of causing fatal disease in both humans and many mammal species. Serological and molecular evidence for henipa-like viruses have been reported from numerous locations including Asia and Africa, however, until now no successful isolation of these viruses have been reported. This paper reports the isolation of a novel paramyxovirus, named Cedar virus, from fruit bats in Australia. Full genome sequencing of this virus suggests a close relationship with the henipaviruses.
 
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Antibodies to Cedar virus were shown to cross react with, but not cross neutralize Hendra or Nipah virus. Despite this close relationship, when Cedar virus was tested in experimental challenge models in ferrets and guinea pigs, we identified virus replication and generation of neutralizing antibodies, but no clinical disease was observed. As such, this virus provides a useful reference for future reverse genetics experiments to determine the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of the henipaviruses.

30. Lyssaviruses  This genus comprises of not only rabies virus (causing death of almost everyone who is infected) but certain other viruses such as Duvenhage virus, Mokola virus, and Australian bat lyssavirus. Although small number of cases are reported, but the ones reported have always been fatal. Bats are vectors for all of these types except for Mokola virus.

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Lyssavirus (from Lyssa, the Greek goddess of madness, rage, and frenzy) is a genus of viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, in the order Mononegavirales. This group of RNA viruses includes the rabies virus traditionally associated with the disease. Viruses typically have either helical or cubic symmetry. Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, so their infectious particles are approximately cylindrical in shape. This is typical of plant-infecting viruses. Human-infecting viruses more commonly have cubic symmetry and take shapes approximating regular polyhedra. The structure consists of a spiked outer envelope, a middle region consisting of matrix protein M, and an inner ribonucleocapsid complex region, consisting of the genome associated with other proteins.

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Lyssavirus genome consists of a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes five viral proteins: polymerase L, matrix protein M, phosphoprotein P, nucleoprotein N, and glycoprotein G.

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Based on recent phylogenetic evidence, lyssa viruses are categorized into seven major species. In addition, five species recently have been discovered: West Caucasian bat virus, Aravan virus, Khuj and virus, Irkut virus and Shimoni bat virus. The major species include rabies virus (species 1), Lagos bat virus (species 2), Mokola virus (species 3), Duvenhage virus (species 4), European Bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (species 5 and 6), and Australian bat lyssavirus (species 7).83980497

Based on biological properties of the viruses, these species are further subdivided into phylogroups 1 and 2. Phylogroup 1 includes genotypes 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7, while phylogroup 2 includes genotypes 2 and 3. The nucleocapsid region of lyssavirus is fairly highly conserved from genotype to genotype across both phylogroups; however, experimental data have shown the lyssavirus strains used in vaccinations are only from the first species(i.e. classic rabies).

31. Tuberculosis  Mucous, fever, fatigue, excessive sweating and weight loss. What do they all have in common?

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They are symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, or TB. TB is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs, but it may spread to other organs. The symptoms of this disease can remain stagnant for years or affect the person right away. People at higher risk for contracting TB include the elderly, infants and those with weakened immune systems due to other diseases, such as AIDS or diabetes, or even individuals who have undergone chemotherapy.

Being around others who may have TB, maintaining a poor diet or living in unsanitary conditions are all risk factors for contracting TB. In the United States, there are approximately 10 cases of TB per 100,000 people. Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, and in many cases fatal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air. Most infections do not have symptoms, known as latent tuberculosis. About one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected.

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The classic symptoms of active TB infection are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss (the latter giving rise to the formerly common term for the disease, "consumption"). Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of body fluids.

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Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or blood tests. Treatment is difficult and requires administration of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Social contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infections. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.

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One-third of the world’s population is thought to have been infected with M. tuberculosis, with new infections occurring in about 1% of the population each year.In 2007, an estimated 13.7 million chronic cases were active globally, while in 2010, an estimated 8.8 million new cases and 1.5 million associated deaths occurred, mostly in developing countries. The absolute number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing since 2006, and new cases have decreased since 2002.

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The rate of tuberculosis in different areas varies across the globe; about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries tests positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5–10% of the United States population tests positive. More people in the developing world contract tuberculosis because of a poor immune system, largely due to high rates of HIV infection and the corresponding development of AIDS.

32. Encephalitis Virus Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. Victims are usually exposed to viruses resulting in encephalitis by insect bites or food and drink. The most frequently encountered agents are arboviruses (carried by mosquitoes or ticks) and enteroviruses ( coxsackievirus, poliovirus and echovirus ). Some of the less frequent agents are measles, rabies, mumps, varicella and herpes simplex viruses.

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Patients with encephalitis suffer from fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, drowsiness and photophobia. The symptoms of encephalitis are caused by brain’s defense mechanisms being activated to get rid of infection (brain swelling, small bleedings and cell death). Neurologic examination usually reveals a stiff neck due to the irritation of the meninges covering the brain. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluidCerebrospinal fluid CSF in short, is the clear fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space (the space between the skull and cortex of the brain). It acts as a "cushion" or buffer for the cortex.

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Also, CSF occupies the ventricular system of the brain and the obtained by a lumbar puncture In medicine, a lumbar puncture (colloquially known as a spinal tap is a diagnostic procedure that is done to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for biochemical, microbiological and cytological analysis. Indications The most common indication for procedure reveals increased amounts of proteins and white blood cells with normal glucose. A CT scan examination is performed to reveal possible complications of brain swelling, brain abscess Brain abscess (or cerebral abscess) is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material coming from local (ear infection, infection of paranasal sinuses, infection of the mastoid air cells of the temporal bone, epidural abscess) or re or bleeding. Lumbar puncture procedure is performed only after the possibility of a prominent brain swelling is excluded by a CT scan examination.

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What are the main Symptoms?
Some patients may have symptoms of a cold or stomach infection before encephalitis symptoms begin.
When a case of encephalitis is not very severe, the symptoms may be similar to those of other illnesses, including:
• Fever that is not very high
• Mild headache
• Low energy and a poor appetite
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Other symptoms include:
• Clumsiness, unsteady gait
• Confusion, disorientation
• Drowsiness
• Irritability or poor temper control
• Light sensitivity
• Stiff neck and back (occasionally)
• Vomiting
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Symptoms in newborns and younger infants may not be as easy to recognize:
• Body stiffness
• Irritability and crying more often (these symptoms may get worse when the baby is picked up)
• Poor feeding
• Soft spot on the top of the head may bulge out more
• Vomiting
Encephalitis

• Loss of consciousness, poor responsiveness, stupor, coma
• Muscle weakness or paralysis
• Seizures
• Severe headache
• Sudden change in mental functions:
• "Flat" mood, lack of mood, or mood that is inappropriate for the situation
• Impaired judgment
• Inflexibility, extreme self-centeredness, inability to make a decision, or withdrawal from social interaction
• Less interest in daily activities
• Memory loss (amnesia), impaired short-term or long-term memory

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Children and adults should avoid contact with anyone who has encephalitis.
Controlling mosquitoes (a mosquito bite can transmit some viruses) may reduce the chance of some infections that can lead to encephalitis.
• Apply an insect repellant containing the chemical, DEET when you go outside (but never use DEET products on infants younger than 2 months).
• Remove any sources of standing water (such as old tires, cans, gutters, and wading pools).
• Wear long-sleeved shirts and pants when outside, particularly at dusk.
Vaccinate animals to prevent encephalitis caused by the rabies virus.

 

33. Chicken Pox Virus Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).It usually starts with a vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than on the limbs. The rash develops into itchy, raw pockmarks, which mostly heal without scarring. On examination, the observer typically finds skin lesions at various stages of healing and also ulcers in the oral cavity and tonsil areas. The disease is most commonly observed in children.

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Chickenpox is an airborne disease which spreads easily through coughing or sneezing by ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash. A person with chickenpox is infectious one to two days before the rash appears. They remain contagious until all lesions have crusted over (this takes approximately six days). Immunocompromised patients are contagious during the entire period as new lesions keep appearing. Crusted lesions are not contagious.Chickenpox has been observed in other primates, including chimpanzees and gorillas.

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The origin of the term chicken pox, which is recorded as being used since 1684,is not reliably known. It has been said to be a derived from chickpeas, based on resemblance of the vesicles to chickpeas, or to come from the rash resembling chicken pecks. Other suggestions include the designation chicken for a child (i.e., literally ‘child pox’), a corruption of itching-pox, or the idea that the disease may have originated in chickens. Samuel Johnson explained the designation as "from its being of no very great danger."

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The early (prodromal) symptoms in adolescents and adults are nausea, loss of appetite, aching muscles, and headache. This is followed by the characteristic rash or oral sores, malaise, and a low-grade fever that signal the presence of the disease. Oral manifestations of the disease (enanthem) not uncommonly may precede the external rash (exanthem). In children the illness is not usually preceded by prodromal symptoms, and the first sign is the rash or the spots in the oral cavity. The rash begins as small red dots on the face, scalp, torso, upper arms and legs; progressing over 10–12 hours to small bumps, blisters and pustules; followed by umbilication and the formation of scabs.

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At the blister stage, intense itching is usually present. Blisters may also occur on the palms, soles, and genital area. Commonly, visible evidence of the disease develops in the oral cavity & tonsil areas in the form of small ulcers which can be painful or itchy or both; this enanthem (internal rash) can precede the exanthem (external rash) by 1 to 3 days or can be concurrent. These symptoms of chickenpox appear 10 to 21 days after exposure to a contagious person. Adults may have a more widespread rash and longer fever, and they are more likely to experience complications, such as varicella pneumonia.Because watery nasal discharge containing live virus usually precedes both exanthem (external rash) and enanthem (oral ulcers) by 1 to 2 days, the infected person actually becomes contagious one to two days prior to recognition of the disease. Contagiousness persists until all vesicular lesions have become dry crusts (scabs), which usually entails four or five days, by which time nasal shedding of live virus also ceases.

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Chickenpox is rarely fatal, although it is generally more severe in adult men than in women or children. Non-immune pregnant women and those with a suppressed immune system are at highest risk of serious complications. Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) associated with chickenpox in the previous year accounts for nearly one third of childhood AIS. The most common late complication of chickenpox is shingles (herpes zoster), caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus decades after the initial, often childhood, chickenpox infection.

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Shingles  Herpes zoster After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body’s nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, but later in life, usually as an adult, it can be reactivated and cause a different form of the viral infection called shingles (scientifically known as herpes zoster). The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) suggests that any adult over the age of 60 years gets the herpes zoster vaccine as a part of their normal medical check ups.

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Many adults who have had chickenpox as children are susceptible to shingles as adults, often with the accompanying condition postherpetic neuralgia, a painful condition that makes it difficult to sleep. Even after the shingles rash has gone away, there can be night pain in the area affected by the rash.Shingles affects one in five adults infected with chickenpox as children, especially those who are immune suppressed, particularly from cancer, HIV, or other conditions.

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However, stress can bring on shingles as well, although scientists are still researching the connection.Shingles are most commonly found in adults over the age of 60 who were diagnosed with chickenpox when they were under the age of 1.A shingles vaccine is available for adults over 50 who have had childhood chickenpox or who have previously had shingles.

34. POXVIRUS  Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) are viruses that can, as a family, infect both vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

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Four genera of poxviruses may infect humans: orthopox, parapox, yatapox, molluscipox. Orthopox: smallpox virus (variola), vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, monkeypox virus; Parapox: orf virus, pseudocowpox, bovine papular stomatitis virus; Yatapox: tanapox virus, yaba monkey tumor virus; Molluscipox: molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV).The most common are vaccinia (seen on Indian subcontinent) and molluscum contagiousum, but monkeypox infections are rising (seen in west and central African rainforest countries). Camelpox is a disease of camels caused by a virus of the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and the genus Orthopoxvirus. It causes skin lesions and a generalized infection. Approximately 25% of young camels that become infected will die from the disease, while infection in older camels is generally more mild.

Poxvirus model in section (Pov_Ray)

The ancestor of the poxviruses is not known but structural studies suggest it may have been an adenovirus or a species related to both the poxviruses and the adenoviruses. Based on the genome organization and DNA replication mechanism it seems that phylogenetic relationships may exist between the rudiviruses (Rudiviridae) and the large eukaryal DNA viruses: the African swine fever virus (Asfarviridae), Chlorella viruses (Phycodnaviridae) and poxviruses (Poxviridae).The mutation rate in these genomes has been estimated to be 0.9-1.2 x 10−6 substitutions per site per year.A second estimate puts this rate at 0.5-7 × 10−6 nucleotide substitutions per site per year.  A third estimate places the rate at 4-6 × 10−6.

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The last common ancestor of the extant poxviruses that infect vertebrates existed 0.5 million years ago. The genus Avipoxvirus diverged from the ancestor 249 ± 69 thousand years ago. The ancestor of the genus Orthopoxvirus was next to diverge from the other clades at 0.3 million years ago. A second estimate of this divergence time places this event at 166,000 ± 43,000 years ago. The division of the Orthopox into the extant genera occurred ~14,000 years ago. The genus Leporipoxvirus diverged ~137,000 ± 35,000 years ago. This was followed by the ancestor of the genus Yatapoxvirus. The last common ancestor of the Capripoxvirus and Suipoxvirus diverged 111,000 ± 29,000 years ago.

Poxvirus Pov-Ray model 2

A model of a poxvirus cut-away in
cross-section to show the internal
structures. Poxviruses are shaped like
flattened capsules/barrels or are lens or
pill-shaped.

Poxvirus Pov-Ray model 3

Their structure is complex,
neither icosahedral nor helical. This
model is based on Vaccinia, the smallpox
virus. The structures are also highly
variable and often incompletely studied.

 

35. West Nile Virus  West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae.

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This flavivirus is found in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It was first identified in the West Nile subregion in the East African nation of Uganda in 1937. Prior to the mid-1990s, WNV disease occurred only sporadically and was considered a minor risk for humans, until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996, with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease. WNV has now spread globally, with the first case in the Western Hemisphere being identified in New York City in 1999; over the next five years, the virus spread across the continental United States, north into Canada, and southward into the Caribbean islands and Latin America. WNV also spread to Europe, beyond the Mediterranean Basin, and a new strain of the virus was identified in Italy in 2012. WNV is now considered to be an endemic pathogen in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and in the United States, which in 2012 has experienced one of its worst epidemics. In 2012, WNV killed 286 people in the United States, with the state of Texas being hard hit by this virus, making the year the deadliest on record for the United States.

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The main mode of WNV transmission is via various species of mosquitoes, which are the prime vector, with birds being the most commonly infected animal and serving as the prime reservoir host—especially passerines, which are of the largest order of birds, Passeriformes. WNV has been found in various species of ticks, but current research suggests they are not important vectors of the virus. WNV also infects various mammal species, including humans, and has been identified in reptilian species, including alligators and crocodiles, and also in amphibians. Not all animal species that are susceptible to WNV infection, including humans, and not all bird species develop sufficient viral levels to transmit the disease to uninfected mosquitoes, and are thus not considered major factors in WNV transmission.

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Approximately 80% of West Nile virus infections in humans are subclinical, which cause no symptoms. In the cases where symptoms do occur—termed West Nile fever in cases without neurological disease—the time from infection to the appearance of symptoms (incubation period) is typically between 2 and 15 days. Symptoms may include fever, headaches, fatigue, muscle pain or aches, malaise, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, myalgias and rash. Less than 1% of the cases are severe and result in neurological disease when the central nervous system is affected. People of advanced age, the very young, or those with immunosuppression, either medically induced, such as those taking immunosupressive drugs, or due to a pre-existing medical condition such as HIV infection, are most susceptible. The specific neurological diseases that may occur are West Nile encephalitis, which causes inflammation of the brain, West Nile meningitis, which causes inflammation of the meninges, which are the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, West Nile meningoencephalitis, which causes inflammation of the brain and also the meninges surrounding it, and West Nile poliomyelitis—spinal cord inflammation, which results in a syndrome similar to polio, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis.

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Currently, no vaccine against WNV infection is available. The best method to reduce the rates of WNV infection is mosquito control on the part of municipalities, businesses and individual citizens to reduce breeding populations of mosquitoes in public, commercial and private areas via various means including eliminating standing pools of water where mosquitoes breed, such as in old tires, buckets, unused swimming pools, etc. On an individual basis, the use of personal protective measures to avoid being bitten by an infected mosquito, via the use of mosquito repellent, window screens, avoiding areas where mosquitoes are more prone to congregate, such as near marshes, areas with heavy vegetation etc., and being more vigilant from dusk to dawn when mosquitoes are most active offers the best defense. In the event of being bitten by an infected mosquito, familiarity of the symptoms of WNV on the part of laypersons, physicians and allied health professions affords the best chance of receiving timely medical treatment, which may aid in reducing associated possible complications and also appropriate palliative care.

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The incubation period for WNV—the amount of time from infection to symptom onset—is typically from between 2 and 15 days. Headache can be a prominent symptom of WNV fever, meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, and it may or may not be present in poliomyelytis-like syndrome. Thus, headache is not a useful indicator of neuroinvasive disease.(CDC)

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  • West Nile virus encephalitis (WNE) is the most common neuroinvasive manifestation of WNND. WNE presents with similar symptoms to other viral encephalitis with fever, headaches, and altered mental status. A prominent finding in WNE is muscular weakness (30 to 50 percent of patients with encephalitis), often with lower motor neuron symptoms, flaccid paralysis, and hyporeflexia with no sensory abnormalities.
  • West Nile meningitis (WNM) usually involves fever, headache, and stiff neck. Pleocytosis, an increase of white blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid, is also present. Changes in consciousness are not usually seen and are mild when present.
  • West Nile meningoencephalitis is inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and meninges (meningitis).
  • West Nile poliomyelitis (WNP), an acute flaccid paralysis syndrome associated with WNV infection, is less common than WNM or WNE. This syndrome is generally characterized by the acute onset of asymmetric limb weakness or paralysis in the absence of sensory loss. Pain sometimes precedes the paralysis. The paralysis can occur in the absence of fever, headache, or other common symptoms associated with WNV infection. Involvement of respiratory muscles, leading to acute respiratory failure, can sometimes occur.
  • West-Nile reversible paralysis,. Like WNP, the weakness or paralysis is asymmetric. Reported cases have been noted to have an initial preservation of deep tendon reflexes, which is not expected for a pure anterior horn involvement.Disconnect of upper motor neuron influences on the anterior horn cells possibly by myelitis or glutamate excitotoxicity have been suggested as mechanisms.The prognosis for recovery is excellent.
  • Cutaneous manifestations specifically rashes, are not uncommon in WNV-infected patients; however, there is a paucity of detailed descriptions in case reports and there are few clinical images widely available. Punctate erythematous (?), macular, and papular eruptions, most pronounced on the extremities have been observed in WNV cases and in some cases histopathologic findings have shown a sparse superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate, a manifestation commonly seen in viral exanthems (?). A literature review provides support that this punctate rash is a common cutaneous presentation of WNV infection. (Anderson RC et al.)

USA WEST NILE VIRUS

West Nile virus life cycle. After binding and uptake, the virion envelope fuses with cellular membranes, followed by uncoating of the nucleocapsid and release of the RNA genome into the cytoplasm. The viral genome serves as messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation of all viral proteins and as template during RNA replication. Copies are subsequently packaged within new virus particles that are transported in vesicles to the cell membrane.

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WNV is one of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic serocomplex of viruses. Image reconstructions and cryoelectron microscopy reveal a 45–50 nm virion covered with a relatively smooth protein surface. This structure is similar to the dengue fever virus; both belong to the genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae.

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The genetic material of WNV is a positive-sense, single strand of RNA, which is between 11,000 and 12,000 nucleotides long; these genes encode seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The RNA strand is held within a nucleocapsid formed from 12-kDa protein blocks; the capsid is contained within a host-derived membrane altered by two viral glycoproteins. Phylogenetic tree of West Nile viruses based on sequencing of the envelope gene during complete genome sequencing of the virus

Phylogenetic_tree_of_West_Nile_viruses

Studies of phylogenetic lineages determined WNV emerged as a distinct virus around 1000 years ago. This initial virus developed into two distinct lineages, lineage 1 and its multiple profiles is the source of the epidemic transmission in Africa and throughout the world. Lineage 2 was considered an Africa zoonosis. However, in 2008, lineage 2, previously only seen in horses in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, began to appear in horses in Europe, where the first known outbreak affected 18 animals in Hungary in 2008. Lineage 1 West Nile virus was detected in South Africa in 2010 in a mare and her aborted fetus; previously, only lineage 2 West Nile virus had been detected in horses and humans in South Africa. A 2007 fatal case in a killer whale in Texas broadened the known host range of West Nile virus to include cetaceans.

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The United States virus was very closely related to a lineage 1 strain found in Israel in 1998. Since the first North American cases in 1999, the virus has been reported throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America. There have been human cases and equine cases, and many birds are infected. The Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus, was the first nonhuman primate to contract WNV.  Both the United States and Israeli strains are marked by high mortality rates in infected avian populations; the presence of dead birds—especially Corvidae—can be an early indicator of the arrival of the virus.

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The West Nile virus maintains itself in nature by cycling between mosquitoes and certain species of birds. A mosquito (the vector) bites an uninfected bird (the host), the virus amplifies within the bird, an uninfected mosquito bites the bird and is in turn infected. Other species such as humans and horses are incidental infections, as they are not the mosquitoes’ preferred blood meal source. The virus does not amplify within these species and they are known as dead-end hosts.

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The West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted through female mosquitoes, which are the prime vectors of the virus. Only females feed on blood, and different species have evolved to take a blood meal on preferred types of vertebrate hosts. The infected mosquito species vary according to geographical area; in the United States, Culex pipiens (Eastern United States), Culex tarsalis (Midwest and West), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Southeast) are the main sources.The various species that transmit the WNV prefer birds of the Passeriformes order, the largest order of birds. Within that order there is further selectivity with various mosquito species exhibiting preference for different species. In the United States WNV mosquito vectors have shown definitive preference for members of the Corvidae and Thrush family of birds. Amongst the preferred species within these families are the American crow, a corvid, and the American robin (Turdus migratorius), a thrush.

The proboscis of a female mosquito—here a Southern House Mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus)—pierces the epidermis and dermis to allow it to feed on human blood from a capillary: this one is almost fully tumescent. The mosquito injects saliva, which contains an anesthetic, and an anticoagulant into the puncture wound; and in infected mosquitoes, the West Nile virus.

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The birds develop sufficient viral levels after being infected, to transmit the infection to other biting mosquitoes that in turn go on to infect other birds. In crows and robins, the infection is fatal in 4–5 days. This epizootic viral amplification cycle has been shown to peak 15–16 days before humans become ill. This may be due to the high mortality, and thus depletion of the preferred hosts, i.e., the specific bird species. The mosquitoes become less selective and begin feeding more readily on other animal types such as humans and horses which are considered incidental hosts.

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In mammals, the virus does not multiply as readily (i.e., does not develop high viremia during infection), and mosquitoes biting infected mammals are not believed to ingest sufficient virus to become infected,making mammals so-called dead-end hosts.

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Direct human-to-human transmission initially was believed to be caused only by occupational exposure, or conjunctive exposure to infected blood. The US outbreak identified additional transmission methods through blood transfusion,organ transplant intrauterine exposure, and breast feeding. Since 2003, blood banks in the United States routinely screen for the virus among their donors. As a precautionary measure, the UK’s National Blood Service initially ran a test for this disease in donors who donate within 28 days of a visit to the United States, Canada or the northeastern provinces of Italy and the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service asks prospective donors to wait 28 days after returning from North America or the northeastern provinces of Italy before donating.

West Nile Virus Replication

Recently, the potential for mosquito saliva to impact the course of WNV disease was demonstrated. Mosquitoes inoculate their saliva into the skin while obtaining blood. Mosquito saliva is a pharmacological cocktail of secreted molecules, principally proteins, that can affect vascular constriction, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, inflammation, and immunity. It clearly alters the immune response in a manner that may be advantageous to a virus. Studies have shown it can specifically modulate the immune response during early virus infection, and mosquito feeding can exacerbate WNV infection, leading to higher viremia and more severe forms of disease.

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Vertical transmission, the transmission of a viral or bacterial disease from the female of the species to her offspring, has been observed in various West Nile virus studies, amongst different species of mosquitoes in both the laboratory and in nature.Mosquito progeny infected vertically in autumn, may potentially serve as a mechanism for WNV to overwinter and initiate enzootic horizontal transmission the following spring.


BLOOD LINES Nephilim

BLOOD LINES OF NEPHILIM 22

Published May 30 , 2014 | by Team Pleinsfeux

By Beginning and End

In our original article on the Nephilim, we detailed the biblical origin of hybrid giants half angelic half-human, called Nephilim, which are the product of illicit relations between evil fallen angels and human women in the period before the Flood and Noah’s Ark. Deluge swept the giants, but shortly after the flood, they returned and spread around the Promised Land. As this article will demonstrate, not only the giants return after the Flood, but they were the main enemies of God and His chosen people, Israel, for centuries. This article will show that, for a long period, the giants were everywhere in the ancient Middle East and ravaging attacking God’s people and creating spiritual practices to attract humanity to worship Satan and his angels.

Genesis 6:1-5: The origin of the Nephilim

“When men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them, the son of God saw the daughters of men were beautiful, and they took them wives of all which they chose . the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for man is flesh: yet his days shall be one hundred twenty years. were giants in the earth in those days, after the son of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them; These are the heroes who were famous in antiquity. Jehovah saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and all thoughts of his heart was only evil day. “

This brief tells a very important original story. A group of “son of God”, the biblical name for the angels in rebellion against the Lord came to earth and took human women as wives to have illicit relations . And their children, half-human hybrid, half-angelic Nephilim were giants. idea that angels can sleep with women and have children is not something that all Christians accept, know or even confirm. However, the truth of Christianity is based on a single source: The Word of God as revealed in the Bible. And, from a study of the Scriptures, it becomes clear that this event actually took place.

The “Son of God” Were Angels?

This question is often raised as an objection initially to the idea that the Nephilim giants have never even existed. The Hebrew words for “son of God” is B’nai Ha Elohim , meaning that they were celestial beings and credence to the idea that the Nephilim were the offspring of fallen angels (the term Elohim is literally the plural of “god”). And then we see that the children of such son of God and the daughters of men were ” powerful men “and” famous. ” They were also “giants.” Something in their genetics made ​​people a size  . And it was their affiliation with the fallen angels.

But, again, we must continue to look in the Bible to ascertain the meaning. The Bible confirms itself and a passage of Scripture can always be confirmed by another. We see the term “son of God “then used in the book of Job . Job 1:6-7 says: “Now the son of God came one day before the LORD, and Satan came also among them. Yahweh said to Satan Where do you come from? And Satan answered the LORD: and fro in the earth and from walking. “

The scene described here, where God literally meets the son of God, took place in the sky. This is a Divine Council gathered by God when He chooses to respond to the good and bad angels to discuss world affairs (for more examples of these assemblies, see . 1 Kings 22 and Psalm 82) Another Divine Council gathered in Job 2:1: “Now the son of God came one day before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before Jehovah. “

So, again, reading these clear texts, “son of God” are not human but are actually angels who meet in heaven with the Lord. And the Hebrew term is b B’nai ha Elohim . The third reference to the son of God in the Old Testament is again in Job, but this time in chapter 38. God, this time asking questions to Job about the creation of the universe (Job to demonstrate the lack of understanding and knowledge he has with respect to the Lord) said:

“Where wast thou when I founded the earth declare , if thou hast understanding. Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou know Where that extended the line upon it? On what were its bases they supported Where who laid its cornerstone, when the morning stars sang together, and all the son of God shouted for joy? ” Job 38:4-7

Again, not only the son of God they are with God again, but they existed before the Earth itself is created. uses the term All B’nai ha Elohim in the Old Testament are a reference to angelic beings. In the Septuagint, the oldest form of the Old Testament today (and the most cited by Jesus and his disciples in the New Testament Version), the term “son of God ‘n’ is not even used in these passages of Job, there is only written, “angels of God.” Thus, we can conclude with certainty that the son of God of Genesis 6 were actually angels.

The angels they had sexual relations with human women?

Job, the oldest book of the Bible that was written by the patriarch Job, who lived shortly after the Flood, and made ​​references to angelic beings. passages There are not often mentioned in the scriptures that indicate that directly some angels were actually involved in illicit relations with human women. lorsqu’Éliphaz This occurs, one of Job’s friends who console about the loss of his family in a powerful hurricane Satan, shares a divine vision that it was:

“A word was secretly brought to me, and mine ear received a little thereof. When the visions of the night stir thought, when men are engaged in a deep sleep, I was seized with fear and terror, and all my bones to shake. A spirit passed before me … All my hair stood on end … A figure of an unknown aspect was before my eyes. And I heard a voice, saying: The man be righteous before God? Would it be more pure than did? If God did not trust in his servants, if he finds the his angels … “ Job 4:12-18

The word “madness” in the Old Testament is used to describe sexual sin. Once again, we use Scripture to interpret Scripture. Examples:

“Dinah the daughter of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land. It was seen by Shechem, son of Hamor, prince of the country. He took her, lay with her, and defiled her …. And the son of Jacob came from the field when they heard it; The men were grieved, and they were very angry, because he had done folly in Israel in lying with Jacob’s daughter, which would not have been done. “ Genesis 34:1-2, 7

“But if this thing be true, if the woman has not found her a virgin, they shall bring out the young woman at the entrance to the house of his father; It shall be stoned by the people of the city, and she will die because she has committed a folly in Israel by playing the harlot in her father’s house. you shall put away the evil from among you. ” Deuteronomy 22:20-21

“After that, here is what happened: Absalom, son of David had a sister who was beautiful and named Tamar; And Amnon the son of David loved her. Amnon was so vexed, that he fell sick because of his sister Tamar; Because she was a virgin, and it seemed hard to Amnon to do it the slightest attempt … As she offered him to eat, he grabbed her and said: Come lie with me, my sister. She replied: No, my brother, do not force me, because it does not act in Israel: Do not commit this folly. ” 2 Samuel 13:1-2, 11-12

So we see that some rogue angels were accused of the sin of “madness” for convicted sexual actions. In the Septuagint, a verse from Job said: “He sees the evil in his angels.” This confirms further that sexual offenders actions were committed by angels.

Books of 2 Peter and Jude detail punishment of angels who committed these sins

“… He hath reserved in the judgment of the great day, in everlasting chains under darkness, the angels who did not keep their dignity, but left their own habitation; As Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality like them and vices against nature, are given as an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire. Nevertheless, these also in their dreaming defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities. ” Jude 1:6-8

Thus, we see a reference to the angels who left their “home” and are reserved in chains until Judgment Day. This was the punishment for those angels who left their homes from the spiritual world to “go to strange flesh” , namely human women. Notice also that there is a reference to Sodom and Gomorrah, the cities so imbued in sexual corruption when two divine angels came to visit Lot’s house to get him out of town with his family , men and boys came to Lot’s house to demand that the angels come so they can “know”.

The descendants of Nephilim giants

The descendants of this illicit union between angels and human was giants who “became mighty men which were those heroes who were famous in antiquity. “(Genesis 6) The fact that they were giants is in itself proof that their membership was superhuman. But these giants were bad. After being born in corruption, these satanic angels dominated the Earth and were filled with violence. It is also interesting to note that the Bible calls “the famous hero.” The Hebrew word Shem refers to the famous and legendary beings. It is as if the Bible stated that when the reader hears captions “demigods” Titans or that are partially divine legendary heroes, it is these “myths” it refers. They were “men” with superhuman strength and ability. Apart cause violence and sin in the world, the Nephilim were also corrupt the human lineage.

Why is it that Satan?

After the sin of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, God pronounced judgment against Satan:

  And the Lord God said to the woman: Why hast thou done this the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I ate. And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field, you will crawl on your belly and you will eat dust all the days of thy life. I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. ”   Genesis 3:14-15

This declaration was historic. proclaimed God as the means by which Satan would eventually be punished and destroyed by the seed of the woman. (It should be recalled at this point that our enemy, Satan, is a being much older and much more powerful and evil; Thus, this prophecy was a very serious statement). A human woman would give birth to a male child one day destroy the devil. This was the first prophecy of the coming Messiah, Jesus Christ. Satan has been ordered. From there, he began to corrupt or destroy any child who fears God, because it could potentially be the prophesied Redeemer. Unsurprisingly, the first child born pious Abel was killed by his evil brother Cain. Cain was banished, and Adam and Eve gave birth to another son, Seth. At birth, Eve said ” God gave me another son in place of Abel, whom Cain slew. ” (Genesis 4:25)

As more and more God-fearing son began to populate the earth, Satan has introduced its plan about Nephilim. By corrupting the seed of the woman, Satan could prevent the birth of the Messiah, of course, was human and not be partially fallen angel. Satan wants the Word of God is a failure, but he knew that in addition to the woman, God prophesied that Satan also have a “seed” (verse 15) . Thus Nephilim were an attempt to thwart the plan of salvation for humanity. At each step, the giant Nephilim, by their evil angelic affiliate, sought to undermine or undo what God intended for humanity to reconcile with Him. Their domination of Earth, they reproduced so quickly that God has proclaimed that all flesh on the earth had become corrupt. They dominated the earth by wars, bloodshed and pagan religions.

Nephilim giants have spread violence and sin so that:

The Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and all the thoughts of their heart was only evil day.  Mankind was about to be destroyed without hope to be saved from sin if all people were born partially fallen angels. Thus, God judged the earth with the flood.

The purpose of the Flood in Noah’s day

Many pastors, scholars and skeptics of the Bible consider the flood as God’s way of dealing with humanity after she sinned too much. However, with all due respect, this is a very simplistic way of looking the Flood. After all, today’s society is just as corrupt and depraved, if it is not worse than any previous time (more people were killed in the wars in the last century in the previous 900 years.) So why such a global judgment would occur only in the days of Noah, answer is that there are many more complex issues going on in the days of Noah, only humans with sin.

The Flood served three main objectives:

1. Destroy Nephilim giants.

2. Joining the angels who commit illicit relations with women and make them an example    so that no other angel is tempted to do another time.

3. Saving mankind from certain destruction.

Much more than “over-reaction of an angry God” as skeptics like to portray, the flood was God’s way to preserve the human race and its bloodline, before it becomes completely corrupted by . Nephilim giants This is an important point: Many people today refer to the Flood as a “proof” that God is cruel and always angry against humanity and is willing to kill millions of people in the genocide on a simple whim. But the biblical truth that God sent the Flood to preserve humanity and to ensure that we can still receive the promised Redeemer who could save our souls. Without Jesus Christ there is no hope, there is no future, there is no forgiveness. Meaning that each pass eternity in hell. ‘s Flood was God’s way to keep this hope for all peoples.

. “But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord are the generations of Noah. Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations; Noah walked with God. ” Genesis 6 :8-9

Noah was chosen to continue and restart mankind after the Flood, because he was a believer in God. Moreover, he was “perfect in his generations”, meaning that its genetic lineage and ancestry were 100% human. Noah had not been part of the Nephilim hybridization which affected humanity. The Hebrew word for “perfect” in this verse is tamiym , which means “complete, whole” in reference to health and fitness. This is the same word used to describe the state of the animal sacrifices Lord

“If a man offering to the Lord from the herd or from the flock as a sacrifice of thanksgiving, or for the fulfillment of a vow or as a freewill offering, the victim will be without blemish to be accepted ; There will be no blemish. ” Leviticus 10:21 p.m.

Noah and his three son and their wives were able to survive the Flood and restart humanity. Unfortunately, the giant Nephilim reappeared.

Nephilim giants after the Flood

“There were giants in the earth in those days, and also after …. “Genesis 6:4

The above verse clearly states that the Nephilim giants reappeared after the Flood.  Now, nowhere in Scripture is it still says that the angels still have lived and / or have had relations with human women after the flood. Genesis 6 was the only example of this. So how did they return Nephilim How is this possible?

The Bible has the answer:
“Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth. Noah entered the ark with his son, his wife and the wives of his son, to escape the waters of the flood. ”
Genesis 7:6-7

While Noah and his son were 100% human, we do not say the same for the three wives of his son, Shem, Ham and Japheth. What is clear is that one or more of these women were gene Nephilim. This is the source of the Nephilim after the flood. Nowhere in the Bible is it written that even angels have once again cohabited with human women.

The first time the Nephilim giants are mentioned by their names after the flood is found in Numbers 13 after the Exodus when Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt to head into the Promised Land designated by God. Moses sent twelve spies to identify the field in advance. Two spies, Joshua and Caleb, spoke of the earth in glowing terms, and urged the Israelites to enter and claim the land that God had promised them. But the other 10 spies had very different opinion:

“And Caleb stilled the people, who murmured against Moses. He said: Let us go, let us seize the country, we will overcome it but the men that went up with him said, We can not go up against the people, because they is stronger than us. And they decried before the children of Israel the land they had explored. they said, The land, which we passed through to search it, is a land that devours its inhabitants; All that we have seen are men of great stature; And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, of the Nephilim: We were in our own eyes and their like locusts. ” Numbers 13:30-33

We will discuss this extremely important passage with much more detail below, but a few things should be noted. Firstly, the giants who live there are descendants of a person named Anak. This description, which a Nephilim is appointed by his name and gave birth to giants shows that the hybrid Nephilim after the Flood were the offspring of other giants and not angels. And in Numbers 13, the spies saw giants What were the son of the giant Nephilim Anak.

And they were so great that the Israelites were spies like insects to them. Moreover, these giants had special knowledge in agriculture they knew how to grow grapes so large that it took two Israelite men using poles to carry a single cluster! So how did they return giants and how they knew they were exactly where God would send His chosen people, namely the land of Canaan? The answer begins with the bloodline after the flood.

The bloodlines of the Nephilim

The Bible provides a specific genealogy and bloodline of Nephilim giants after the flood that can be traced back to own son of Noah. This appears to be consistent with the presence of genes Nephilim had an affinity for evil, because of their affiliation with the evil angels. And of Noah’s son, Ham, was by far the worst.

Cham
“The son of Noah, that went forth of the ark were Shem, Ham and Japheth. Ham was the father of Canaan. ” Genesis 9:18

From the first time that Cham is introduced, it is described as “the father of Canaan.” Note that none of his brothers did not get a similar distinction. Whenever special descriptions are included in a genealogy in Scripture, it is the way the Bible to say that something important happened with this particular event. And students of the Bible should probe the Scriptures to know what could be this event. In this case, it is clear that Canaan carrying genes Nephilim. This could only be done by his mother, the wife of Cham, who herself genes Nephilim, since we know that in all generations Noah was 100% human. If Ham was bad and was not a disciple of God, the chances that it takes a woman who was part of the pagan culture of the hybrid Nephilim were much higher (Also note that throughout the Scriptures, men have fallen into sin after marrying women who worshiped false gods For example, Solomon and King Ahab.) And from what the Bible describes, Cham was not a follower of God. Actually, he was involved in an inappropriate incident with Noah that led to a curse
. “Noah began to cultivate the land, and planted a vineyard: And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent. Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and he brought out his two brothers. Shem and Japheth took a garment and laid it across their shoulders, and went backward and covered the nakedness of their father; Their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness. When Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his younger son had done. And he said, Cursed be Canaan Whether slave ! slaves of his brothers , and said, Blessed be the LORD God of Shem, and let Canaan be his slave! ” Genesis 9:20-26

The details of this incident are a bit vague, but in reading the Scriptures alone, it can be concluded that Cham, with bad intentions, watched the nakedness of his father, and then made ​​everything public. But the evil this shameless action is repeated again to the Lord as a general guiding principle for all:
“Woe unto him that giveth his neighbor drink, that to you pouring your makest him drunken, to see her naked! Thou art filled shame instead of glory; Wood as yourself, and discover yourself! Cutting the right of the Lord be turned unto thee, and shameful spewing your glory. ” Habakkuk 2:15-16

Shem and Japheth, the sons of Noah just show a contrast as they seek to respect the dignity of their father by not looking and carefully covering. Cham’s sin was so serious that it resulted curses on his youngest son, Canaan, becoming the second person in the Bible to be cursed (the first being Cain, the evil son of Adam and Eve).

Wickedness of Ham came (there is no trace of his repentance for his sins) probably his marriage with a woman of a pagan family carrying the genes of the Nephilim.

Why has God allowed it Nephilim DNA to pass through the flood?

Even if it is not already clear, why God allowed the Nephilim genes boarding the ark it is because of human sin. We can not forget the role we play in business human. If human sin, they will be judged. If they do not follow God’s ways, they invite sin and its destructive force inevitable. Cham was not a disciple of God and he was tried for his sinful rebellion by his wife. Nations Nephilim after the Flood are at various times used by God as a judgment against the Israelites for their disobedience. We are all accountable to God.

The giants walked the Earth at war with the nations, angels being openly revealed and worshiped as gods and implementing all sorts of supernatural activities . antediluvian world was a place quite unique. Noah’s family was well aware that the root of this world was satanic, and Noah there was a “preacher of righteousness.” Cham denied justice and the ways of God to establish his own. This was only the fault . Cham Jacques l :12-15 describes the process of sin in his heart : “Blessed is the man that endureth temptation; For when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him. Let When tempted, no one should say God is tempting me. For God can not be tempted by evil, and he himself tempts no one. But each one is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own lust. Then when lust has conceived, it bringeth forth sin, and sin is consumed, produces death. ” Jacques 1:12-15

Cham drew his own lusts in a sinful and pagan world. He knew the right way to live because the Bible says that Noah was a “preacher of righteousness.” Noah and his family were fully aware of the Nephilim hybridization current and Noah clearly made ​​efforts to live apart from this situation. Despite the fact that the holiest man on the planet was his father, Ham had no faith in God. This always brings sin to a person’s life. We can not forget this when we all look Bible stories. God would certainly have killed the wife of Cham Cham or say “it was corrupt,” but I think Cham did not care what God had to say because Cham was not a disciple God. Cham had a choice. And he chose to reject God.

There are many examples of this in Scripture. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt to the Promised Land, but could not enter. Why? Because of his sin. King David brought the ark to Jerusalem, where she was supposed to be, but he could not build the temple to house the ark. Why? Because of his sin. The King Solomon was the most prosperous reign throughout Israel, yet he led the nation to the division and finally its conquest. Why? Because of sin. Sin provides backdoor for Satan to enter and run his next move in the chess game between him and God. Whether it be a lesson to the reader: Satan is relentless in his quest to corrupt you and destroy you. And if he can not reach you, it comes with fun in your life through a child or a member of your family. Ephesians 4:22-27 says:

“… What is it that you have been taught to rob you, given your past life, the old man which grows corrupt according to the deceitful lusts, and be renewed in the spirit of your mind, and put on the new man which was created according to God in righteousness and holiness of the truth …… and do not give the devil a foothold. “

We are renewed in the spirit when we have salvation in Jesus Christ. And we must leave no space in our lives so that Satan can enter. Satan has entered the space of the ark because Cham had invited.

The curse of Canaan was

What is interesting is that Canaan, the third son of Ham, was the one who was cursed. Why? Cham Why was he singled out as “the father of Canaan?” Is it possible that Canaan was already showing signs be partially Nephilim It is not said in the Scriptures, but we will see a similar distinction for another infamous hybrid. What we can know with certainty is that it is from the line Cham we find the resurgence of Nephilim giants.
Comparing Scripture with Scripture, the tradition of giants after the flood can be attributed specifically to three of the son of Ham, Cush, Mizraim and Canaan. The Bible is full of bloodlines and Bible student should note that they are significant in improving our understanding of the Scriptures. ‘s first grand-son of Ham who receives a special designation in Genesis 10 is the king Nimrod.

Nimrod

“The son of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put and Canaan. . The son of Cush: Sheba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteca . The son of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan Cush begat Nimrod; That he began to be mighty upon the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; This is why it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD. reigned first Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Out of that land went forth Asshur, He built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah; This is the big city. ” Genesis 10:6-12

Like Canaan received a special distinction in his genealogy, Nimrod gets several additional verses! Clearly this is someone special importance. Nimrod was the first murderer and conqueror in the world after the flood. He was the founder of Babylon, who became a pagan center of satanic idolatry, largely with different versions of Nimrod being worshiped as a god. His name, which means “rebel” or “we rebel” indicates available . He was an enemy of God and, at the time, he was the chief servant of Satan on Earth. He is credited for leading the efforts to build the Tower of Babel, a religious temple used to access the angelic realm through pagan rituals. tower of Babel was also the first attempt to establish a world government, led by Nimrod, and a man’s attempt to reach the spiritual realm and the “divinity” without the Lord ( what God has responded rapidly destroying the tower by confusing the languages ​​of all peoples of the world and dispersing all over the Earth.) This little son of Ham was there a Nephilim?

The interesting fact is that the verse 9 states that Nimrod “began to be mighty upon the earth.” The term “powerful” gibborim is the same Hebrew phrase used to describe the Nephilim giants of Genesis chapter 6 that were the “mighty men.” This is the same term used to describe the giant Goliath in 1 Samuel 5:51 p.m.. Nimrod was a Nephilim? In mythology, Nimrod is known by many names, including Gilgamesh and Osiris, who were worshiped as gods. In the Sumerian texts, it is described as “two thirds divine and one third human.” The Hebrew word for “started” in the verse is Chalal , meaning “profane or pollute start or ritually sexually. “

Biblical commentary on this passage Matthew Henry says:

“What is observable and improvable in these verses is the account given by Nimrod, verses 8-10. It is here represented as a great man in his time: he began to be mighty upon the earth, it is ie, while those who preceded him were content to stand on the same level with their neighbors, and even if all men established rules in their own homes, no man went further, since the spirit of Nimrod could not stop there; He had decided that the tower would rise above its neighbors, not only the most prominent of them, but to dominate them. “

The final piece of evidence to consider is that, in the Septuagint, the most version of the Old Testament, the same verse of Genesis reads:

“And Cush begat Nimrod; That he began to be mighty upon the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; This is why it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD. ” Genesis 10:8,9

So, from the texts of Scripture, it seems that through some form of dirt and / or occult ritual, Nimrod, the grand-son of Ham, was transformed into a giant. Would not the only time a human king was transformed into a different creature. Reading Daniel 4 Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, was literally transformed into a “beast” and lived like an animal for seven years. And it was the statement “observers” and “saints” (the same type of angels that are designated as being involved in illicit relations Genesis 6 in the extra-biblical texts like the Book of Enoch). (There is much more to write about Nimrod and his role in the writing of the Bible. We strongly encourage the reader to the research and discovery of this character).

Casluhim and Capthorim

“Mizraim begat Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim the Pathrusim and Casluhim, whence came the Philistim and Caphthorim. ” Genesis 10:13-14

Mizraim, son of Ham, also contributed to the tradition of the Nephilim. In verse 14 we have the first mention of the Philistines (whose ancestor was Philistim), the nation’s giant Goliath. Casluhim was the father of Philistim and family later resided Capthor in the Promised Land. Thus, we see the direct origins of the Philistines, one of the strongest enemies of the Israelites, who also carried the genes of the Nephilim. E n fact, the nation of the Philistines last “den” for the rest of the Nephilim giants. And, they can be traced to Casluhim, son of Mizraim and grandson of the evil son Ham.

Canaan

The name of Canaan should be more familiar because it was the land that bore the name of the Promised Land that the Lord had reserved the Israelites after leaving Egypt through miracles of God and the leadership of Moses. The that they were in the Promised Land that the Israelites were supposed to live is not a coincidence! The Philistines were worshipers of demons, fallen angels and Satan. And the Nephilim giants working to attack the chosen people God. The lineage of Canaan contains many enemies of God:

Noah’s curse on Canaan(pic)

NoahCursesCanaan-SonOfHam_Carolsfeld_1851-60

Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth; And the Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, “ Genesis 10:15-16

The Jebusites, the Amorites, and the Girgashites, all cousins ​​of Nimrod, mentioned repeatedly in reference to the Israelites capturing the Promised Land. These families were usurpers Promised Land and carrying many genes Nephilim. This is once again why God had to deal mercilessly with these nations. It can not be stressed enough as Nephilim threatened not only the very existence of the human race, but the ability of a fully human Messiah also born. Notice God’s instructions to Moses on how to fight against these cursed Canaan children:

“When the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou goest to possess it, and hath cast out many nations before thee, the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and the Jebusites, seven more numerous and mightier than thou; When the LORD thy God shall deliver thee and thou be beaten, thou it utterly, Thou shalt make no covenant with them, and thou shalt not do their point through. contracteras You point marriages with them, you shall not give your daughters to their son, nor take their daughter for your son. ” Deuteronomy 7:1-3

Note that God describes these nations as “greater and mightier than you” for the Israelites. Physical and military advantage was clearly on the side of the enemies of God, the nations that were the home of the giant Nephilim. But what gave the Israelites the ultimate side was that the Lord Himself would intervene supernaturally early in the war to weaken the enemies of Israel so that they can be overcome. This point is not discussed enough: God fought and defeated the first Nephilim after the Flood. This shows the seriousness of the matter. The Lord did not allow these powerful superhuman hybrids dominate humanity. Thus, it does not say only delete those nations but he ordered prohibit marriage between them. God brings the spread of genes Nephilim to an end.

According to the will of God, at this stage, it is clear that the giants did exist in the Bible and in large numbers. Satan, who constantly sought to stop the plans of God and destroy the souls of mankind, used a small group of angels to interbreed with human women and attempt to corrupt human DNA. Modifying humanity to no longer fully human, Satan ensured that the human Messiah and not perfectly pure never born. To counter the offensive of Satan, God sent the overall judgment of the Flood to punish the angels who had committed the folly, destroyed the Nephilim and saved the existence of the human race. Deluge ensured the preservation the messianic line so we can have a chance to go to Heaven. It was like an act of love and mercy from God to save a people who had rejected following the servants of Satan and their powers .

NoahCrusingCanaan_GustaveDore_1865

The lineage of the Nephilim after the flood can be clearly attributed to Ham, evil son of Noah, who put a curse on his own child, Canaan.

Branches of The Nephilim, Names and Biblical Information

Anakims (“long-necked; giants”) aka Anakites
  • Descended from Anak (“long-necked; giant”)
  • Anak was the son of Arba (in Hebrew, “Strength of Baal”)
  • Arba was one of the “sons of Heth” who built the city of Hebron (called Kirjath Arba, meaning the city of Arba)
  • Anak, Arba’s son had three descendants in the days of Moses and Joshua who were giants:  Ahiman, Sheshai and Talmai. They dewlt in Hebron circa 1490 BC (Joshua 15:14)
  • Mentioned: Deuteronomy 1:28, Deuteronomy 2:10, Deuteronomy 2:11, Deuteronomy 2:21, Deuteronomy 9:2, Joshua 11:21-22, Joshua 14:12, Joshua 14:15, Joshua 15:14
Avims (“to crook” as “to do amiss”; “commit iniquity”; “to pervert”; “to do wickedly”; “to overthrow”) aka Avvites
  • Southwest Philistia (between lower Egypt and Gaza) [2]
  • The Talmud (Chullin 60b) notes that the Avvites were the first Philistines
  • Mentioned: Deuteronomy 2:23
Emim (“terrible ones”) aka Emites
  • Dwelling to the East of the Salt Sea
  • In Ancient times, the whole land of Canaan was held by the Emim
  • Mentioned: Genesis 14:5, Deuteronomy 2:10-11
Horims (In Hebrew, Troglodyte, meaning”cavemen”, “those who dwell in caves”) aka Horites
  • Inhabited Mount Seir
  • Related to the Emim and Raphaim
  • Their excavated dwellings are still found in the sandstone cliffs and mountains of Edom and Petra [1]
  • Mentioned: Genesis 14:6, Deuteronomy 2:12, Deuteronomy 2:22
Rephaims (“fearful ones; giants”) aka Rephaites
  • Descendents of Rapha (“fearful one; giant”)
  • Mentioned: Genesis 14:5, Genesis 15:20, Deuteronomy 2:11, Deuteronomy 2:20, Deuteronomy 3:11, Deuteronomy 3:13, Joshua 12:4, Joshua 13:2, Joshua 17:15, 1 Chronicles 20:4
  • According to some scholars – in the following instances, Rephaim has been incorrectly translated as “Dead“; it should be rendered “the Rephaim,” as this is a proper name: Job 26:5, Psalm 88:10, Proverbs 2:18, Proverbs 9:18, Proverbs 21:16, Isaiah 14:9, Isaiah 26:19 [5]
Zamzummim (“powerful, vigorous”) aka Zuzims (“prominent, strong, giant”) [3]
  • Related to the Rephaim dwelling in the region afterwards occupied by the Ammonites
  • Mentioned: Genesis 14:5,  Deuteronomy 2:20

THE PUNISHMENT OF THE FALLEN ANGELS – THE DESCENDANTS OF CAIN – THE LEGENDS OF THE JEWS – LOUIS GINZBERG

THE PUNISHMENT OF THE FALLEN ANGELS and the Rephaim, Anakim and Nephilim.

[7] Grown to manhood, Noah followed in the ways of his grandfather Methuselah, while all other men of the time rose up against this pious king. So far from observing his precepts, they pursued the evil inclination of their hearts, and perpetrated all sorts of abominable deeds.

[8] Chiefly the fallen angels and their giant posterity caused the depravity of mankind. The blood spilled by the giants cried unto heaven from the ground,

and the four archangels accused the fallen angels and their sons before God,

whereupon He gave the following orders to them:

Uriel was sent to Noah to announce to him that the earth would be destroyed by a flood, and to teach him how to save his own life.

Raphael was told to put the fallen angel Azazel into chains, cast him into a pit of sharp and pointed stones in the desert Dudael, and cover him with darkness, and so was he to remain until the great day of judgment, when he would be thrown into the fiery pit of hell, and the earth would be healed of the corruption he had contrived upon it.

Gabriel was charged to proceed against the bastards and the reprobates,

the sons of the angels begotten with the daughters of men, and plunge them into deadly conflicts with one another.

Shemhazai’s ilk were handed over to Michael,

who first caused them to witness the death of their children in their bloody combat with each other,

and then he bound them and pinned them under the hills of the earth, where they will remain for seventy generations, until the day of judgment, to be carried thence to the fiery pit of hell.

[9] The fall of Azazel and Shemhazai came about in this way.

When the generation of the deluge began to practice idolatry, God was deeply grieved. The two angels Shemhazai and Azazel arose, and said: “O Lord of the world! It has happened, that which we foretold at the creation of the world and of man, saying, ‘What is man, that Thou art mindful of him?’ ” And God said, “And what will become of the world now without man?”

Whereupon the angels: “We will occupy ourselves with it.” Then said God: “I am well aware of it,

and I know that if you inhabit the earth, the evil inclination will overpower you, and you will be more iniquitous than ever men.”

The angels pleaded, “Grant us but permission to dwell among men, and Thou shalt see how we will sanctify Thy Name.”

God yielded to their wish, saying, “Descend and sojourn among men!”

When the angels came to earth, and beheld the daughters of men in all their grace and beauty, they could not restrain their passion.

Shemhazai saw a maiden named Istehar, and he lost his heart to her.

She promised to surrender herself to him, if first he taught her the Ineffable Name, by means of which he raised himself to heaven.

He assented to her condition.

But once she knew it, she pronounced the Name, and herself ascended to heaven, without fulfilling her promise to the angel.

See the seduction of Ea by Inanna to steal the ME or magical incantations or powers.

God said, “Because she kept herself aloof from sin, we will place her among the seven stars, that men may never forget her,” and she was put in the constellation of the Pleiades.

Shemhazai and Azazel, however, were not deterred from entering into alliances with the daughters of men, and to the first two sons were born.

Azazel began to devise the finery and the ornaments by means of which women allure men.

Thereupon God sent Metatron to tell Shemhazai that He had resolved to destroy the world and bring on a deluge. The fallen angel began to weep and grieve over the fate of the world and the fate of his two sons. If the world went under, what would they have to eat, they who needed daily a thousand camels, a thousand horses, and a thousand steers?

These two sons of Shemhazai, Hiwwa and Hiyya by name, dreamed dreams.

The one saw a great stone which covered the earth, and the earth was marked all over with lines upon lines of writing.

An angel came, and with a knife obliterated all the lines, leaving but four letters upon the stone.

The other son saw a large pleasure grove planted with all sorts of trees.

But angels approached bearing axes, and they felled the trees, sparing a single one with three of its branches.

When Hiwwa and Hiyya awoke, they repaired to their father, who interpreted the dreams for them, saying,

“God will bring a deluge, and none will escape with his life, excepting only Noah and his sons.” When they heard this, the two began to cry and scream, but their father consoled them: “Soft, soft! Do not grieve. As often as men cut or haul stones, or launch vessels, they shall invoke your names, Hiwwa! Hiyya!” This prophecy soothed them.

Shemhazai then did penance. He suspended himself between heaven and earth, and in this position of a penitent sinner he hangs to this day.

But Azazel persisted obdurately in his sin of leading mankind astray by means of sensual allurements.

For this reason two he-goats were sacrificed in the Temple on the Day of Atonement, the one for God, that He pardon the sins of Israel,

the other for Azazel, that he bear the sins of Israel.

[10] Unlike Istehar, the pious maiden, Naamah, the lovely sister of Tubal-cain, led the angels astray with her beauty, and from her union with Shamdon sprang the devil Asmodeus.

[11] She was as shameless as all the other descendants of Cain, and as prone to bestial indulgences.

Cainite women and Cainite men alike were in the habit of walking abroad naked, and they gave themselves up to every conceivable manner of lewd practices. Of such were the women whose beauty and sensual charms tempted the angels from the path of virtue.

The angels, on the other hand, no sooner had they rebelled against God and descended to earth than they lost their transcendental qualities,

and were invested with sublunary bodies, so that a union with the daughters of men became possible. The offspring of these alliances between the angels and the Cainite women were the giants,

[12] known for their strength and their sinfulness; as their very name, the Emim, indicates, they inspired fear. They have many other names. Sometimes they go by the name Rephaim, because one glance at them made one’s heart grow weak; or by the name Gibborim, simply giants, because their size was so enormous that their thigh measured eighteen ells; or by the name Zamzummim, because they were great masters in war; or by the name Anakim, because they touched the sun with their neck; or by the name Ivvim, because, like the snake, they could judge of the qualities of the soil; or finally, by the name Nephilim, because, bringing the world to its fall, they themselves fell.

GRIGORI

The Watchers

The Lord spoke: “Have no fear, Enoch, good man and scribe of goodness. Come hear my voice. Go speak to the Watchers of Heaven, who have sent you to intercede for them. Tell them, You should intercede for men, and not men for you. Why did you leave lofty, holy Heaven to sleep with women and, to defile yourselves with the daughters of men and take them as your wives, and like the children of the earth to beget sons, in your case giants? Though you were holy and spiritual, living the eternal life, you defile yourself with the blood of women, you begot children with the blood of flesh, and like the others you have lusted after flesh and blood as do those who perish. Because they perish I gave them wives so they might impregnate them, have children, and nothing be lacking on the earth. But you were spiritual and immortal for all generations of the world. So I gave you no wives, for Heaven is your proper dwelling place.”

(1 Enoch)

In the early days after the Fall, before the demons had escaped from Hell and before the War had begun in earnest, the Seraphim Council debated long and long about how best to safeguard humanity. They knew mankind was imperfect and needed to be taught selflessness and fear of God, yet some angels felt that humanity could only be spiritually enlightened if Heaven controlled their development, with angels overtly ruling over them. Others pointed out that it was God’s decree that humanity should be left alone that provoked Lucifer to rebel in the first place. How could Heaven protect mankind and at the same time, refrain from interfering in the Great Experiment?

Seemingly in answer, God created the Grigori, the Eight Choir. And the Archangels saw that the Grigori were ideally suited to the task at hand, and dispatched them to Earth, to watch over mankind and report to them what they saw.

The Grigori were truly the most “human” of angels. They could blend with humanity, cope with the petty selfishness and daily sins of men without twitching, interact with humans as near-equals, and all the while retain their divinity. The Grigori were the only angels who really understood humans. Even the Mercurians, who loved humans and intuitively understood the intricate web of human relationships, were still removed from mankind, as benevolent teachers keep themselves at once involved and yet detached from their pupils. Even the most benevolent angels know that they are a different order of being than man, holy and celestial and complete unlike mortals. Only the Grigori understood what it was like to be human. Only the Grigori truly appreciated what made humans special, the reason why God had set them above all other creatures, including angels.

The Grigori were also the only angels who really felt comfortable on Earth, and who didn’t mind staying there. This ultimately contributed to their downfall.

It made them very, very effective at their jobs. They knew why humans did evil, why humans acted selfishly, and they knew how to teach people better, without taking away from their free will. And when the demons came, as Heaven knew they would, the Grigori could sense the slightest disturbance, and thus fulfilled their second function: they warned other angels when demons were about. The Horde learned to fear the Watchers, for while the gentle Grigori were no warriors, even the most subtle diabolical tampering could result in a sudden visit from a flight of Malakim. The demons could never be sure they were safe.

The “Second Fall”

In 11,600 B.C., it came to the attention of Heaven that the Grigori had become entirely too human; they had taken wives, started families, and some were even succumbing to debauchery, immersing themselves in corporeal pleasures. The Grigori argued, to no avail, that this was just part of mingling with humanity and understanding them. The truth was that they had become corrupted by their long stay on Earth.

Servitors of Uriel and David rounded up the Watchers and brought them before Dominic for judgment. Meanwhile, the Grigori’s monstrous offspring, the Nephalim, were hunted (almost) to extinction. It is said that David and Oannes, Archangel of the Waters, generated a great flood in the area of the Tigris and Euphrates that drowned entire civilizations, just to wipe out the numerous Grigori offspring.

Dominic found the Grigori Choir, one and all, guilty of base, selfish, human behavior, disobeying the Heavenly edict against procreating with humans, and being derelict in their duties. (Even the Grigori who hadn’t “gone native” had failed to report their sinning brethren to Judgment.) The Seraphim Council voted to punish them with eternal exile; all Grigori Hearts were broken, and all were Outcast. They would spend the rest of their days among the humans they loved, never to see the glories of Heaven again, until Judgment Day.

Why Did the Grigori Fall?

Some say that the Archangels were partly to blame; their Grigori servants seemed so content in their positions on Earth that it never occurred to the Seraphim Council that the Watchers should occasionally be summoned back to Heaven for an audience with their Superiors, and to remind them of their true origins. Most of the Grigori had not visited Heaven for thousands of years.

Others say that Hell is to blame. As long as the Watchers were present, demons were unable to infiltrate human society at a deep level. So they realized that the Grigori themselves would have to be corrupted and removed from the picture. How did the Diabolicals go about tempting the Grigori? With the most beautiful women, with earthly delights, with subtle appeals to their loneliness, perhaps a building, unacknowledged sense of resentment at having been “abandoned” on Earth? Who can say? Andrealphus likes to take credit for planting lust in the hearts of the Watchers, but perhaps it was simply their own weakness.

The most radical theory of all is that God planned it all along. After all, why would He give the Grigori the ability to breed with humans if they weren’t supposed to do just that? To this day, the Children of the Grigori are a potent, untapped force for good on Earth, one that some believe will be key to mankind’s salvation during Armageddon. There are even theories that all humans with above-average potential — all those with more than 5 Forces, meaning all Soldiers, sorcerers, and other “special” humans — have some Grigori blood in them, and thus that the Watchers were God’s way of seeding a little bit of divinity among mankind.

The Grigori Today

No one knows how many Grigori are still alive. Estimates range from 50 to 0, with most on the low side. Any angel who discovers one of the Watchers is required to report it to Judgment, and then stay away; contact with the Eighth Choir is strictly forbidden. Dominic, for his part, tries to keep track of all known Grigori. (This is not easy — any Grigori who realizes he’s been found will quickly “disappear” by taking another guise within human society.) The Grigori are still forbidden to procreate; any found to be doing so are subject to death (as are their children). So long as a Watcher is merely watching, however, Judgment takes no action against him, for they are still serving their sentence.

There are rumors of secret societies with Grigori at the center of vast and ancient conspiratorial networks, gathering information for use in the War, when the final battle comes and the Grigori are recalled to serve Heaven again. There are rumors that the Grigori possess a vast arsenal of secret Songs known only to themselves (the Archangel of Song was, after all, a Grigori). There are rumors that the Grigori still watch over their descendants, and even that they sometimes still sire children, though the danger is great. There are rumors that some Grigori have earned favor with an Archangel and secretly been reinstated in his service. (Dominic would immediately call a trial if such a thing were discovered.) There are rumors that Grigori Archangels are still active on Earth. There are many rumors, but few known facts, where the Grigori are concerned.

All Grigori today are Outcasts; corporeal death means Limbo for them. None are Servitors, and (theoretically) none retain any Choir or Servitor Attunements or Distinctions from their former masters. Unless, of course, there are still Grigori Archangels, and where these Archangels would keep their Servitors’ Hearts is unknown. Any Grigori who do exist must be over 10,000 years old, and have survived for millennia remaining undetected by humans, Heaven, and Hell alike. Michael has been known to grumble from time to time that if the Grigori are still around, and have knowledge about their children, that they are great untapped resource for Heaven. But he has not challenged Dominic’s edict…yet.

Resonance

The Watchers are acutely attuned to the Symphony, and hear disturbances that no one else can. If a demon assaults a human in his dreams, a Watcher can hear it. If an angel makes a baby cry, a Watcher can hear it. The lies of a Balseraph, the emotional manipulations of a Habbalite, the seductions of an Impudite…all of these things subtly disturb the Symphony. Most celestials can’t hear those sorts of subtle disturbances, amidst all the other celestial noise, but the Grigori can. And the grosser disturbances that any celestial can hear are painfully loud to the Watchers. It is very difficult for even a cautious celestial to operate undetected if there is a Watcher about.

The Grigori also sired the original Children of the Grigori (and their monstrous kin, the Nephalim). It was for the sin of breeding with humans that they were Outcast in the first place. Yet even today, the Choir that is the closest to humanity is the most difficult to distinguish from humanity, for they also make little disturbance of their own.

Dissonance

Originally created to listen for diabolical disturbances and sound the alarm, it is dissonant for a Grigori to not respond to any disturbance he hears. At the very least, he must note when and where he heard it, for future reference, but if he never follows up, the GM should assign a point of dissonance. Usually the Grigori will at least investigate the source, and if they discover that the disturbance is the result of diabolical meddling on Earth, they must act.

Before their fall, the usual action was to call other angels in to deal with the problem. Since this is rarely an option nowadays, a Watcher will settle for calling the police, if it’s something the police can do something about. If not, they must find some other way to address the disturbance, whether by helping the victim or taking some action against the perpetrator. Because of their compulsion to act, even Grigori who’d like to stay out of the War altogether often find themselves being drawn into it. Some have retreated into the wilderness, hoping that solitude will grant them the peace of never hearing a Symphonic disturbance.

Manner and Appearance

The Grigori in celestial form look like very large humans, but humans of such pure spirit that they cannot be mistaken for mortals.

The Grigori were also known as the “Giants,” as they were exceptionally tall, with large heads and hands (and other organs, or so say some legends…). Of course this was about 15,000 years ago, and nowadays, they can almost blend in with modern humans, but still tend to be quite tall; the original Grigori vessels were never shorter than 6 feet and sometimes taller than 7. When they are occasionally able to procure a new vessel, the Grigori still feel uncomfortable in anything smaller. Unlike the Mercurians, who are always fashionable, the Grigori wear whatever is comfortable and will allow them to blend in with society.

They are gentle giants, and while quite a few Grigori have by necessity learned the arts of war, they dislike violence, and they especially dislike harming humans. Unlike Mercurians, they can be violent, and this has surprised more than one demon. But they much prefer roles as teachers and caretakers. While they tend to be quiet and unassuming, the Grigori also cannot help but enjoy life; their original purpose, after all, was to help humans be the best humans they can be, and that includes enjoying all the best parts of the human experience. This is what got them into trouble, thousands of years ago, and while most of the Watchers are more cautious nowadays, they still tend to be epicures.

The Grigori think of themselves as handmade instruments — drums, fifes, lyres — made to be broken out whenever it’s time to sing and dance.

Game Mechanics

Any disturbance is doubled for the purposes of detection by any Grigori within range. Furthermore, mental and spiritual trauma causes disturbances that the Grigori can hear as well. The following events generate Watcher-detectable disturbances (these are the base values; remember to double them per the normal Grigori resonance — other Choirs might theoretically be able hear these disturbances also, at their base values, with appropriate attunements or Songs):

Because their attunement to disturbances is part of their resonance, dissonance impairs their ability to hear it. Each point of dissonance a Grigori suffers subtracts 1 from his Perception roll to hear disturbances.

Mental and Spiritual Disturbances

Ethereal Combat: +1 per 4 Mental hits
The Grigori can hear mental assaults on humans. Ethereal damage inflicted on ethereals or celestials, however, does not create any disturbance, even to the Grigori.
Celestial Combat: +1 per 4 Soul hits or 1 Force
Any damage celestially inflicted on a human creates a disturbance that the Grigori can hear. As with corporeal and ethereal damage, celestial damage inflicted on an ethereal or celestial generates no disturbance.
Use of Will-based Resonance Against a Human: 2
Any time a celestial successfully uses a Will-based resonance against a human — this includes possession by Kyriotates, and invoking of Geases by Lilim — it creates a disturbance of 2.
Human Resistance of a Will-based Resonance: 1
When a human successfully resists a Will-based resonance, it generates a 1-point disturbance.
Emotional Trauma: 1
Whenever a celestial causes a human emotional trauma — whether it’s a Calabite intimidating someone, or a Balseraph whose lies have broken a mortal’s heart, or just a baby crying because of a Malakite’s harsh tone — it creates a disturbance of 1, perceptible to the sensitive ears of the Grigori.

The Grigori have two additional abilities; strictly speaking, these are not part of their resonance, but part of their celestial nature, just as a Malakite’s inability to Fall is part of his nature. Thus, dissonance doesn’t affect these abilities.

First, Grigori can interbreed with humans in the normal fashion, without using the Song of Fruition. A Grigori in a male vessel can impregnate a mortal woman; a Grigori in a female vessel can become pregnant by a human male. (Grigori cannot reproduce with other celestials, however, including each other.) Note that Grigori-human couplings don’t automatically result in pregnancy, any more than human-human couplings do. The Grigori are never infertile, however. Any children born as the result of such liaisons will be mortal. Most are the (in)famous Children of the Grigori, humans of exceptional stature, but approximately 1 in 3 are born hideously deformed, and if allowed to live, will become one of the horrid Nephalim. Because of this, the Grigori are never indiscriminate about mating with humans.

The second Grigori Choir ability is their humanness; they are so close to humanity that they can almost fool the Symphony itself. When using a Role, a Grigori may add his Celestial Forces to any roll to avoid creating a disturbance (In Nomine, p. 44); this is in addition to his Corporeal Forces. And almost all Grigori have Roles of level 6; they’ve been on Earth a long time. A Watcher who is careful (and those who are still alive must be, by definition) can spend mortal lifetimes without ever creating a single note of disturbance.

Choir Attunements

Since all the Grigori are Outcasts who were stripped of all attunements, none possess any of their Archangel’s attunements today. (Unless they serve one of the Grigori Archangels — see Azrael for an example.) Likewise, the Outcasting of the entire Choir from Heaven required every Archangel to sever his connection to the Grigori resonance; thus, no Archangel can grant the Grigori Choir Attunement even to other Servitors. However, the Grigori Choir Attunements are presented below out of interest, for those who want to use them anyway, or for historical games.

Blandine

Blandine’s Grigori were the only celestials who could create their own dreamscapes when they fell asleep. This was optional; a Grigori of Dreams could enter the Marches normally, like any other Servitor of Dreams, but he could also choose to enter his own personal dreamscape. By itself, this ability wasn’t particularly useful (though the Grigori enjoyed it, as they were able to sculpt their own dreams to their liking), but in conjunction with other Servitors of Dreams, it allowed them to do such things as create a dreamscape under the Grigori’s control to which sleeping mortals could be brought, or to lay traps for Beleth’s Servitors . . .

David

Grigori of Stone were not spared David’s wrath when the Choir was found guilty of fraternizing with humans; indeed, David was even more furious at his own Watchers. Few if any survived . . .

David’s Grigori were the first architects. They taught humans how to build shelter, and were the earliest practitioners of feng shui. Any structure designed or built by a Grigori of Stone would be guaranteed to be free of structural defects, and would grant one individual within the structure an extra point of Essence at dawn every day. (If more than one person was within the structure at dawn, the recipient would be random, and if no one was there, the Essence would not be “saved up”.)

Dominic

It was with deep disappointment that Dominic sentenced his own Grigori to be Outcast with all the rest, for they had been some of his most useful Servitors; not only for their keen senses, but because they were also his executioners. They were charged with passing Judgment upon mortals guilty of the most terrible crimes. A Grigori of Judgment could injure or kill a mortal without creating a disturbance. (To do so unjustly would of course be dissonant.)

Eli

Eli’s Grigori were among the first to fall prey to hedonism, something Dominic has not forgotten. Grigori of Creation were natural artists and craftsmen; though they were not as skilled as the most gifted human artisans, there was nothing they couldn’t create with at least some skill. They effectively had Artist/1 with every specialty (if they wanted to become more skilled in a particular art, that specialty had to be bought up normally).

Something not commonly known to anyone else was that Eli’s Grigori also had complete control over their procreative abilities; any union between a Grigori of Creation and a mortal would result in a pregnancy, or not, as the angel willed it.

Gabriel

Gabriel’s Grigori were his only Servitors devoted to healing, rather than hurting. While other angels of Fire punished the cruel, Grigori of Fire had the ability to recognize on sight anyone who had been a victim of cruelty. A successful Perception roll would give the Grigori some idea of the nature of the victim’s suffering, with a higher check digit providing more detailed information (a 6 would even identify the culprit). It was their job to tend to these victims, while alerting their fellow Servitors to the existence of someone in need of attention . . .

Janus

Forced to wander perpetually, like Janus’ other Servitors, Grigori of the Wind were pathfinders and explorers. Whenever faced with a choice of directions to take, they could choose to know either the safest or the fastest route (but not both, though in some cases, the safest route might also be the fastest).

Jean

With their understanding of humanity, Jean’s Watchers had an intuitive grasp of anything crafted by the hand of man. They could tell at a glance what any man-made object’s intended purpose was. With a successful Perception roll, they could also tell if a demon had had a hand in an object’s design or construction. (Obviously, if they looked at an object and had no idea what it was for, they knew it had to have been created by a celestial . . . )

Jordi

Jordi considered humans to be merely talking animals, and so his Grigori were the angels most closely attuned to this most vexing species. A Grigori of Animals in a human vessel created no disturbance in the Symphony, except with Essence expenditures or Songs. Jordi’s Watchers could also communicate basic concepts to any human with gestures and simple words — though the angel might not speak the human’s language, the human would always comprehend what the angel was trying to communicate.

Laurence

Laurence never had any Grigori Servitors, since the Choir was Outcast long before he was created.

Marc

With an attunement for human desires that made them Heavenly analogs to the Lilim, Grigori of Trade could tell by looking in a human’s eyes what he most desired.

Michael

Grigori of War rarely fought themselves, but they provided excellent intelligence to those who did, and were among Michael’s best spies. If one of his Watchers perceived a disturbance, they would know exactly who was responsible, if that individual was within sight.

Novalis

Novalis’ Grigori, naturally, were dedicated to peace, even more than most of her Servitors. Anyone wishing to take any kind of hostile action against a Grigori of Flowers, even indirectly, and at any distance, would have to make a Will roll at a penalty equal to the angel’s Celestial Forces, or find himself unable to do so.

Grigori of Flowers also had a “green thumb,” and could sense intuitively how to care for any plant. Their crops and gardens were always bountiful.

Yves

The Watchers of Destiny watched entire generations. With a successful Perception roll, one of Yves’ Grigori could “read” an individual’s entire family tree, going up or down a number of generations equal to the check digit. On a check digit of 6, a Grigori of Destiny would sometimes “realize” that an individual was destined to have a descendant with an unusually important destiny (and might get some details about the predestined one).

The Grigori – Angelic Watchers

Have You Read “The Grimoire of the Fallen Angels”?
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The Grigori (from Greek egrgoroi, “The Watchers”) are, in one popular version, a group of fallen angels described in Biblical apocrypha who mated with mortal women, giving rise to a race of hybrids known as the Nephilim, who are described as giants in Genesis 6:4. A different idea of the Grigori appears in some traditions of Italian witchcraft where the Grigori are said to come from ancient stellar lore. References to angelic Grigori appear in the books of Enoch and Jubilees. In Hebrew they are known as the Irin, “Watchers,” found mentioned in the Old Testament Book of Daniel (chapter 4).
According to the Book of Enoch, the Grigori numbered a total of 200 but only their leaders are named:

“These are the names of their chiefs: Samyaza, who was their leader, Urakabarameel, Akibeel, Tamiel, Ramuel, Danel, Azkeel, Saraknyal, Asael, Armers, Batraal, Anane, Zavebe, Samsaveel, Ertael, Turel, Yomyael, Azazyel (also known as Azazel). These were the prefects of the two hundred angels, and the remainder were all with them.” (1Enoch 7:9)

In Enoch, the Watchers are angels apparently dispatched to Earth simply to watch over the people. They soon begin to lust for the human women they see, and at the prodding of their leader Samyaza, they defect en masse to marry and live among men. The children produced by these relationships are the Nephilim, savage giants who pillage the earth and endanger humanity. Samyaza, Azazel, and the others become corrupt, and teach their human hosts to make metal weapons, cosmetics, and other necessities of civilization that had been kept secret. But the people are dying and cry to the heavens for help. God sends the Great Flood to rid the earth of the Nephilim, but sends Uriel to warn Noah so as not to eradicate the human race. The Grigori are bound “in the valleys of the Earth” until Judgment Day. (See Jude 1:6)
The Watchers story in Enoch is derived from Genesis chapter 6. Verses 1-4 describe the “Origin of the Nephilim” and mention the “Sons of God” who beget them:

“When men began to multiply on earth and daughters were born to them, the sons of GOd saw how beautiful the daughters of man were, and so they took for their wives as many of them as they chose. Then the Lord said: “My spirit shall not remain in man forever, since he is but flesh. His days shall comprise one hundred and twenty years.” At that time the Nephilim appeared on earth (as well as later), after the sons of God had intercourse with the daughters of man, who bore them sons. They were the heroes of old, the men of renown.” (Genesis 6:1-4)

Here, the “sons of God” are given no specific name or function; they could represent fallen angels, or simply heavenly beings that mate with women.
The Book of Jubilees adds further details about the Watchers. While “Watchers” or “Sentinels” are mentioned alongside the “holy ones” in the Book of Daniel, it is doubtful they have any connection to the Grigori. The angels were fairly popular in Jewish folklore, which often describes them as looking like large human beings that never sleep and remain forever silent. While there are good and bad Watchers, most stories revolve around the evil ones that fell from grace when they took “the daughters of man” as their mates.

References to other Grigori
In the early stellar cults of Mesopotamia there were four “royal” Stars (known as Lords) which were called the Watchers. Each one of these stars “ruled” over one of the four cardinal points common to Astrology. This particular system would date from approximately 3000 BC. The star Aldebaran, when it marked the Vernal Equinox, held the position of Watcher of the East. Regulus, marking the Summer Solstice, was Watcher of the South. Antares, marking the Autumn Equinox, was Watcher of the West. Fomalhaut, marking the Winter Solstice, was Watcher of the North. In the star myths the Watchers themselves were depicted as gods who guarded the Heavens and the Earth. Their nature, as well as their “rank”, was altered by the successive lunar and solar cults that replaced the older stellar cults.
Eventually the Greeks reduced the Watchers to the gods of the four winds.
Earlier mystical Hebrew sects organized the Watchers into an Archangel hierarchy. According to this system the Watchers were ruled over by four great Watchers known as Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Auriel. In the Old Testament (Daniel 4: 13 17) there is reference made to the Irin, or Watchers, which appear to be an order of angels. In early Hebrew lore the Irin were a high order of angels that sat on the supreme Judgment Council of the Heavenly Court. In the Apocryphal Books of Enoch and Jubilees, the Watchers were sent to Earth to teach law and justice to humankind. The most common associations found in various texts on Medieval magic regarding the Watchers are as follows:
1. Araqiel: taught the signs of the earth. 2. Armaros: taught the resolving of enchantments. 3. Azazel: taught the making of weapons of war. 4. Barqel: taught astrology. 5. Ezequeel: taught the knowledge of the clouds. 6. Gadreel: taught the art of cosmetics. 7. Kokabeel: taught the mystery of the Stars. 8. Penemue: taught writing. 9. Sariel: taught the knowledge of the Moon. 10. Semjaza: taught Herbal enchantments. 11. Shamshiel: taught the signs of the Sun.
It is these same angels who are referred to as the Sons of God in the Book of Genesis. According to Christian belief their sins filled the Earth with violence and the world was destroyed as a result of their intervention. Richard Cavendish, in his book The Powers of Evil, makes references to the possibilities of the Giants mentioned in Genesis 6:4, being the Giants or Titans of Greek Mythology. He also lists the Watchers as the fallen angels which magicians call forth in ceremonial magic. Cavendish mentions that the Watchers were so named because they were stars, the “eyes of night.”

Christian theologians joined the Watchers to an evil class of fallen angels known as the principalities of the air. St. Paul, in the New Testament, calls the Fallen Angels “principalities”: “for we are not contending against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers…against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in High Places”. It was also St. Paul who called Satan “The prince of power of the air”, and thus made the connection of Satan (himself connected to “a star”, Isiah 14: 12 14) and etheric beings, for they were later known as demons and as principalities of the Air.
This theme was later developed by a French theologian of the 16th Century, named Sinistrari, who spoke of beings existing between Humans and Angels. He called them demons and associated them with the Elemental natures of Earth, Air, Fire and Water. This, however, was not a new concept but was taught by certain Gnostic sects in the early days of Christianity. Clement of Alexandria, influenced by Hellenistic cosmology, attributed the movement of the Stars and the control of the four elements to angelic beings. Sinistrari attributed bodies of fire, air, earth, and water to these Beings, and concluded that the Watchers were made of fire and air. Cardinal Newman, writing in the mid 1800s, proposed that certain angels existed who were neither totally good nor evil, and had only “partially fallen” from the Heavens.

In some Witchcraft and Wiccan systems the Watchers are beings who guard portals that link worlds together. Within such systems they are viewed as a spiritual race, a set of deities, or as spirits of the four elements. The Watchers are associated with the four quarters of north, east, south, and west. In some Traditions the Watchers are associated with the four elements of earth, air, fire, and water. They are also linked to each solstice and equinox, as well as to a specific star.
In Charles Leland’s book Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches, he recounts the tale of “The Children of Diana, or how the fairies were born” in which it is stated that Diana created “the great spirits of the stars”. In another legend titled “How Diana made the Stars and the Rain” Leland writes that Diana went “to the fathers of the Beginning, to the mothers, the spirits who were before the first spirit”. Some Italian witches believe that the Grigori (Watchers) are such an ancient race and this reference may well speak of them.
Over half a century following Leland’s works, Gerald Gardner wrote of the Watchers and their connection to Wicca. In Wiccan religion the Watchers are evoked at quarterly “Watchtowers” to guard and witness the rites performed before them. In some Traditions each new initiate is taken to the four quarters and formally introduced to each of the Watchers. The Watchers are known by many names including the Old Ones and the Dread Lords of the Outer Spaces.

In many Witchcraft/Wiccan traditions the Watchers are not only the guardians of the portals to other realms, but also protectors of the magic circle, and witnesses to rites. Each of the ruling Watchers oversees a Watchtower, which is now a portal marking one of the four quarters of the ritual circle. In Ancient times a “Tower” was a military fighting unit, and a “Watchtower” was a defending home unit, similar to a National Guard.

Partial List of Grigori and Their Sources

• Armaros (also Amaros) in Enoch I taught men the resolving of enchantments.
• Araqiel (also Arakiel, Araqael, Araciel, Arqael, Sarquael, Arkiel, Arkas) in Enoch I taught humans the signs of the earth. However, in the Sibylline Oracles, Araqiel is referred to not as a fallen angel, or Grigori, but as one of the 5 angels who lead the souls of men to judgement, the other 4 being Ramiel, Uriel, Samiel, and Aziel.
• Azazel in I Enoch taught men to make knives, swords, shields, and how to devise ornaments and cosmetics.
• Baraqel (Baraqiel) taught men astrology (from Enoch I).
• Chazaqiel taught men the signs of the clouds (meteorology) in Enoch I.
• Kokabiel (also Kakabel, Kochbiel, Kokbiel, Kabaiel, and Kochab), in The Book of the Angel Raziel, is a high-ranking, holy angel but, in general apocryphal lore and also in Enoch I, he is a fallen Grigori, resident of nether realms, and commands 365,000 surrogate spirits to do his bidding. Among other duties, he instructs his fellows in astrology.
• Penemue in I Enoch 69.8 “taught mankind the art of writing with ink and paper,” and taught “the children of men the bitter and the sweet and the secrets of wisdom.”
• Sariel (also Suriel, Zerachiel, and Sarakiel) is one of the 7 archangels originally listed in the Enoch books as Saraqel. Apocryphally, he is the governor of the zodiacal sign of Aries. In the Enoch books, he also teaches of the courses of the moon (at one time regarded as forbidden knowledge).
• Samyaza (also Shemyazaz, Shamazya, Semiaza, Shemhazi, Semyaza and Amezyarak) is one of the leaders of the fall from heaven and is referred to in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Vocabulaire de l’ Angelologie.
• Shamsiel, once a guardian of Eden, in the Zohar, served as one of the 2 chief aides to the Archangel Uriel (the other aide being Hasdiel) when Uriel bore his standard into battle, and is the head of 365 legions of angels and also crowns prayers, accompanying them to the 5th heaven. He is referred to in Jubilees as one of the Grigori. In I Enoch he is a fallen angel who teaches the signs of the sun.

Summary: Angels Who Taught Humans from 1 Enoch. Some translations vary so two tables are presented below:

Translation 1
Translation 2
Teaching

Azazel
Azazyel
Swords Knives Shields Breastplates Metals & Metalwork
Bracelets-Cosmetics Precious Stones Colouring and
Tinctures

Semjaza
Amazarak
Enchantments & Root-cutting

Armaros
Armers
Enchantments & Sorcery

Baraqijal
Barkayal
Astrology

Kokabel
Akibeel
Constellations

Ezeqeel
Clouds

Araqiel
Signs of the Earth

Shamsiel
Tamiel
Signs of the Sun

Sariel
Asaradel
Course of the Moon

Egregore (Egregor)

The word “egregore” (also “grigori”) is a transliteration of the Greek word, egregoroi, meaning “watchers”. This word appears in the septuagint translation of the Book of Lamentations, as well as the Book of Jubilees and the Book of Enoch.

Therefore an egregore is an angel, sometimes called watcher; in Hebrew the word is ir, and the concept appears in The Book of Enoch. Thus, Irim, the city of the Nephilim is again linked with the Book of Enoch, since the Nephilim, according to that Book, were the sons of the Irim (the egregores.). .Although the Irim, the egregores, are angels on both sides of the camp – fallen angels as well as faithful ones.

In some Christian doctrines, a fallen angel is an angel that has been exiled or banished from Heaven [fallen being a a metaphor for “cast out” or ostracized. Not literally meaning the angels fell! ] . Often such banishment is a punishment for disobeying or rebelling against God. One early source for information on angelology and demonology is the Persian prophet Zoroaster. The best-known fallen angel is Lucifer. Lucifer rebelled and was cast out of Heaven and fell to Earth for his offense. According to some traditions, fallen angels will roam the Earth until Judgment Day, when they will be banished to Hell.
[According to Revelation 12, the rebel host aggregated one-third of the angels in heaven. They fell for 9 days. Their number was estimated in the 15th century to have been 133,306,668 (the tabulation of Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum). ]
Origin of the term
The origin of the term lies in the Hebrew word for “giant”. The Hebrew word translated as “giants” here is Nephilim, a plural, which itself derives from the root word Naphal, which means to fall. The apocryphal Book of Enoch explains that a group of rebellious angels “left their first estate” (heaven, or the sky) and came down (fell) to Earth to marry human women and have children with them. Jude makes mention of these angels in the New Testament:
Jude 1:6 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.
Due to the disastrous results of this forbidden intermingling, many have come to view the word “fallen” as denoting a fall from grace, though it seems that the original meaning was simply to descend from the heavens.
The distinction of good and bad angels constantly appears in the Bible, but it is instructive to note that there is no sign of any dualism or conflict between two equal principles, one good and the other evil. The conflict depicted is rather that waged on earth between the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of the Evil One, but the latter’s inferiority is always supposed. The existence, then, of this inferior, and therefore created, spirit, has to be explained.
The gradual development of Hebrew language consciousness on this point is very clearly marked in the inspired writings. The account of the fall of the First Parents (Genesis 3) is couched in such terms that it is difficult to see in it anything more than the acknowledgment of the existence of a principle of evil who was jealous of the human race.
The statement (Genesis 6:1) that the “Sons of God” married the daughters of men is explained of the fall of the angels, in Enoch 6-9, and codices, D, E F, and A of the Septuagint read frequently, for “sons of God”, oi aggeloi tou theou. Unfortunately, codices B and C are defective in Ge., vi, but it is probably that they, too, read oi aggeloi in this passage, for they constantly so render the expression “sons of God”; cf. Job 1:6, 2:1, 38:7; but on the other hand, see Psalms 2:1; 85; & (Septuagint). Philo, in commenting on the passage in his treatise “Quod Deus sit immutabilis”, i, follows the Septuagint. For Philo’s doctrine of Angels, cf. “De Vita Mosis”, iii, 2, “De Somniis”, VI: “De Incorrupta Manna”, i; “De Sacrificis”, ii; “De Lege Allegorica”, I, 12; III, 73; and for the view of Genesis 6:1, cf. St. Justin, Apol., ii 5.
Job 1-2
The picture afforded us in Job 1-2 is equally imaginative; but Satan, perhaps the earliest individualization of the [a] fallen Angel, is presented as an intruder who is jealous of Job. He can be seen as clearly an inferior being to the Deity and can only touch Job with God’s permission, or as the ultimate embodiment of pride, as per his believed characteristics, trying to prove God’s summation of Job’s character and faith is flawed. By playing within the limitations God himself has set Satan affords himself the opportunity to cause Job to curse the Lord and there-by, in affect, prove God wrong in order to prove himself to be correct, and therefore superior to God. How theological thought advanced as the sum of revelation grew appears from a comparison of II Kings 24:1, with I Paral., xxi, 1.
Whereas in the former passage David’s sin was said to be due to “the wrath of the Lord” which “stirred up David”, in the latter we read that “Satan moved David to number Israel”. In Job. iv, 18, we seem to find a definite declaration of the fall: “In His angels He found wickedness.” The Septuagint of Job contains some instructive passages regarding avenging angels in whom we are perhaps to see fallen spirits, thus xxxiii, 23: “If a thousand death-dealing angels should be (against him) not one of them shall wound him”; and xxxvi, 14: “If their souls should perish in their youth (through rashness) yet their life shall be wounded by the angels”; and xxi, 15: “The riches unjustly accumulated shall be vomited up, an angel shall drag him out of his house;” cf. Prov., xvii, 11; Ps., xxxiv, 5, 6; lxxvii, 49, and especially, Ecclesiasticus, xxxix, 33, a text which, as far as can be gathered from the present state of the manuscript, was in the Hebrew original.
In some of these passages, it is true, the angels may be regarded as avengers of God’s justice without therefore being evil spirits. In Zach., iii, 1-3, Satan is called the adversary who pleads before the Lord against Jesus the High Priest. Isaias, xiv, and Ezech., xxviii, are for the Fathers the loci classici regarding the fall of Satan (cf. Tertull., adv. Marc., II, x); and Jesus Himself has given colour to this view by using the imagery of the latter passage when saying to His Apostles: “I saw Satan like lightning falling from heaven” (Luke 10:18).
New Testament
In New Testament times, the idea of the two spiritual kingdoms is clearly established. The devil is a fallen angel who in his fall has drawn multitudes of the heavenly host in his train. Jesus terms him “the Prince of this world” (John xiv, 30); he is the tempter of the human race and tries to involve them in his fall (Matthew 25:41; 2 Peter 2:4; Ephesians 6:12; 2 Corinthians 11:14; 12:7). Christian imagery of the devil as the dragon is mainly derived from the Apocalypse (ix, 11-15; xii, 7-9), where he is termed “the dragon”, “the old serpent”, etc., and is represented as having actually been in combat with Archangel Michael. Also, an image is given him as a “roaring lion seeking whom he may devour (as seen in II Peter)” gives context, and substance of his role as the tempter of the inhabitants of the earth. The similarity between scenes such as these and the early Babylonian accounts of the struggle between Merodach and the dragon Tiamat is very striking. Whether we are to trace its origin to vague reminiscences of the mighty saurians which once people the earth is a moot question, but the curious reader may consult Bousett, “The Anti-Christ Legend” (tr. by Keane, London, 1896). The translator has prefixed to it an interesting discussion on the origin of the Babylonian Dragon-Myth.
Reasons for their fall
There are a number of different beliefs regarding the origins and motivations of fallen angels. Many focus on issues of free will, lust, pride, or the incomprehensibility of the acts of God.
Consequences of free will
It is generally accepted by most Christians that the fallen angels were cast out of Heaven because of actions taken against God. These actions were enabled because the angels were granted free will. Generally, these actions included active rebellion, doubt in God’s motives or plans, or a rejection of the system of Heaven. Pride is often involved, especially in cases where an angel believed itself to be more powerful than God (Lucifer being the prime example among these [this is often disputed]).
Origen
Origen, a father of the early Christian Church, believed that God had created all angels to be equal and free. However, in possessing the power of free will, some of them began to move further away from God of their own volition.
Origen states metaphorically that, although some angels fell and became human or demonic, all hope is not lost. He theorizes that by practicing virtue, men and demons can again become angels. While considered an early Father of the Church, Origen was deemed a heretic as a result of some of his writings and teachings, which did not conform to accepted scripture or tradition. Mainly, his concept of Apocatastasis, the belief that all beings (human beings, fallen angels, demons, and Satan) will return to God through God’s love and mercy, was deemed unacceptable at that time. His excommunication was posthumously reversed.
Lust
The following comes from a series of ancient texts referenced in the Bible called “The Three Books of Enoch”, a set of books found in the Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament.
According to these books, it is because of lust that some angels fell from Heaven. God asked the “Watchers” (Grigori), a select group of angels, to assist the Archangels in the creation of Eden. Those Grigori who descended to Earth saw the daughters of men and became enchanted with them. Consequently, the Grigori began to reveal to man some of the secrets of Heaven, such as astrology and the vanity of enhancing the face and body with perfumes and cosmetics. The Grigori then fell in love with human women. According to the text, some of the Grigori even took wives and created offspring, giants known as the Nephilim. This made God so angry that he cursed those Grigori who had betrayed Him, threw them out of Heaven, made them mortal and transformed them into demons. God sent the Great Flood to cleanse the Earth of the wanton killing and destruction perpetrated by the Nephilim. Notable angels who fell in this account are Semyazza, Samael, Azazel, and Lucifer.
Pride
This belief involves Lucifer’s revolution against God, well known amongst Christians. Pride, the gravest of the seven deadly sins, eventually led to the expulsion from Heaven of certain beings, up to and including the highest orders of angels. Lucifer, who himself succumbed to pride, was the first and mightiest angel to be created. With intelligence, radiance, beauty, and power unmatched among all of the angels in Heaven, Lucifer was second in majesty only to God Himself.
Unfortunately, Lucifer became ambitious and self-centered, eventually deciding to prove his power by raising his throne to the height of God’s throne. Other angels did not approve of Lucifer’s plan; they did not want a lower being trying symbolically to become the equal of God. When Lucifer enacted his scheme, he was instantly hurled out of Heaven. This account of the rebellion might have come from several ancient Canaanite manuscripts that deal with Shahar, one of their own deities.
Catholic theologians have speculated that the incarnation of Christ was revealed to the angels. The idea that all of Heaven must bow before Christ, formed in part from the lesser nature of humanity, motivated the prideful actions of Lucifer (cf. Suarez, De Angelis, lib. VII, xiii).
Modern Catholic view
According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Angels were all created good but some turned bad on their own. Angels don’t need faith as they already have the knowledge of celestial things. Due to their angelic nature, repentance is not possible and their sins are irreversible.
Venerable Sor María de Jesús de Agreda (1602-1665+), expressed in a book titled “La Mistica Ciudad de Dios” what is the modern common Catholic interpretation. In the beginning of times, when God separated daylight from darkness, He also separated the good from the bad in the Heavens: God revealed his Trinitary nature to the Angels, He also showed them He would incarnate and all the Angels were to revere and adore Him as God and human.
Lucifer was the first angel to rebel against God (Isaiah 14) and with him he took one third of the the celestial host. Lucifer was the most beautiful angel, so beautiful indeed that he envied God and wanted to receive all His praises: he didn’t accept the idea of bowing before Jesus and hated being inferior to any human, including His Holy Mother. As a punishment God didn’t remove the powers from the Devil but decided to punish and humiliate him by stating that through His Holy Mother, which he failed to respect and praise, his head would be crushed and he would be defeated and anihilated.
Then came the battle related by Saint John (Apoc. 12) between St. Michael the Archangel and His Angels, and Lucifer and his angels.
Bowing to mankind
According to the Qur’an, when God created man, He wanted His angels and Iblis to acknowledge man by bowing down to him, but Iblis did not obey His mandate. Islam does not hold Iblis to be a fallen angel because it maintains that Iblis is one among many of Allah’s creations, and that Iblis is made out of fire as are the Jinn. These Jinns are divided into two groups, one being that which follows the Islamic teachings, the other which follows Iblis.
We created you and then formed you and then We said to the Angels, “Prostrate before Adam” and they prostrated except for Iblis. He was not among those who prostrated. God said, “What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you?” He (iblis) replied, “I am better than him. You created me from fire and You created him from clay”. God said, “Descend from heaven. It is not for you to be arrogant in it. So get out! You are one of the abased.” Surah 7 (al-A`raf), 11-13.
A later mention of this idea can be found in “Vita Adae et Evae”, an apocryphal text which most scholars agree was written somewhere near the end of the 10th century AD.
XIII: The devil replied, ‘Adam, what dost thou tell me? It is for thy sake that I have been hurled from that place. When thou wast formed, I was hurled out of the presence of God and banished from the company of the angels. When God blew into thee the breath of life and thy face and likeness was made in the image of God, Michael also brought thee and made (us) worship thee in the sight of God; and God the Lord spake: Here is Adam. I have made thee in our image and likeness.’
XIV: And Michael went out and called all the angels saying: ‘Worship the image of God as the Lord God hath commanded.’ And Michael himself worshipped first; then he called me and said: ‘Worship the image of God the Lord.’ And I answered, ‘I have no (need) to worship Adam.’ And since Michael kept urging me to worship, I said to him, ‘Why dost thou urge me? I will not worship an inferior and younger being. I am his senior in the Creation, before he was made was I already made. It is his duty to worship me.’
XV: When the angels who were under me heard this, they refused to worship him. And Michael saith, ‘Worship the image of God, but if thou wilt not worship him, the Lord God will be wroth with thee.’ And I said, ‘If He be wroth with me, I will set my seat above the stars of heaven and will be like the Highest.’
Anon. Vita Adae et Evae, 13–15.
Obedience to God
There is a Sufi version of the story that states that Lucifer was the angel who loved God the most. At the time of the angels’ creation, God told them to bow to no one but Him.
However, God created mankind, whom he considered superior to the angels, and commanded the angels to bow before the new figure. Lucifer refused, partly because he could not forget the first commandment, but also because he would bow to his beloved God only. The other angels saw Lucifer as insubordinate, and expelled him from Heaven.
Those who believe in this version do not consider Lucifer or the fallen angels to be demons, since they did not rebel against God by refusing his mandate, but rather believed that creatures should bow before only God, and no one else.
Some people believe that the Seraphim (Lucifer, Belial, Leviathan and Satan) were the only Fallen Angels, and those who believed and joined their cause became the first demons.

Fallen angels by rank


Some of the fallen were supposedly members of more than one rank, but this list will only list the primary rank, or the rank that is most well-known, of each apostate angel. For more information, see the articles of the various entities.
First Sphere

  • Seraphim
  • Lucifer
  • Satan
  • Leviathan
  • Belial
  • Cherubim
  • Azazel
  • Beelzebub
  • Berith
  • Lauviah
  • Marou
  • Salikotal
  • Thrones
  • Focalor
  • Forneus
  • Gressil
  • Mammon
  • Murmur
  • Nelchael
  • Phenex
  • Purson
  • Raum
  • Sonneillon
  • Sytri
  • Verrine

Second Sphere

  • Dominions
  • Balam
  • Marchosias
  • Nilaihah
  • Oeillet
  • Paimon
  • Rosier
  • Virtues
  • Agares
  • Ariel
  • Barbatos
  • Belial
  • Lelaliah
  • Purson
  • Sealiah
  • Senciner
  • Uzziel
  • Powers
  • Amy
  • Beleth
  • Carnivean
  • Carreau
  • Crocell
  • Gaap
  • Lehahiah
  • Uvall

Third Sphere

  • Principalities
  • Belphegor
  • Imamiah
  • Ian
  • Nisroch
  • Nithael
  • Verrier
  • Archangels
  • Adramelech
  • Ananael
  • Basasael
  • Dagon
  • Mephistopheles
  • Moloch
  • Rimmon
  • Rumjal
  • Sarfael
  • Thammuz
  • Zagiel
  • Angels
  • Arakiba
  • Arakiel
  • Araxiel
  • Arioch
  • Armans
  • Asael
  • Asbeel
  • Astoreth
  • Caim
  • Iuvart

Others:
• Abigor
• Adirael
• Aldebaran
• Amazarak
• Anane
• Antares
• Armers/Armaros
• Asbeel
• Atarculphegh
• Asael/Azazel
• Azaradel
• Akibeel/Azibeel
• Azkeel
• Azza
• Badariel
• Baraqel
• Batarel
• Batraal/Batarjal
• Busasejal
• Chobaliel
• Danel/Daniel
• Ertael/Ertrael
• Exael
• Ezequeel
• Fomalhaut
• Gadreel/Gadriel
• Gurson
• Hakael
• Hananel
• Haures
• Hosampsich
• Iomuel
• Jeqon
• Jetrel
• Jove
• Kasdaye
• Kasbeel
• Kathazel
• Kokabel
• Meresin
• Mulciber
• Naamah
• Nithael
• Omiel
• Orus
• Penemue
• Ramuel
• Regent
• Regulus
• Rugziel
• Rumjal
• Samathael
• Sameveel
• Samsaveel
• Saraknyal
• Sariel
• Seriel
• Shaftiel
• Simapesiel
• Tabaet
• Tamiel
• Temeluchus
• Thausael
• Tiril
• Tumael
• Turael
• Urakabarameel
• Uzza
• Xaphan
• Yomyael
• Zavebe
[A listing of 44 angels]

The following list of 100 Fallen Angels has been taken from A Dictionary of Angels, including the Fallen Angels: Gustav Davidson.
They are listed alphabetically, not in order of importance.

1. Abbadona (once of the order of seraphim)
2. Adramelec [Archangels]
3. Agares (Agreas) [Virtues]
4. Amezyarak (Amiziras; also alternate for Semyaza)
5. Amy (one partly of the order of powers and partly of the order of angels)
6. Anmael (identified with Semyaza)
7. Arakiel (Araqiel)
8. Araziel
9. Ariel (once of the order of virtues)
10. Arioc(h) [Arioch]
11. Armaros (Abaros, Armers, Pharmaros)
12. Armen
13. Artaqifa (Arakiba)
14. Asbeel
15. Asmoday
16. Asmodeus (Sammael) [once of the order of seraphim]
17. Astaroth (once of the order of seraphim and of thrones) [Angels]
18. Astoreth (Astarte) [Angels]
19. Atarculph [Atarculphegh?]
20. Auza (Oza)
21. Azaradel
22. Azazel (once of the order of cherubim)
23. Azza
24. Azzael (Asael)
25. Balam (once of the order of dominations)
26. Baraqel (Barakel, Baraqijal)
27. Barbatos (once of the order of virtues)
28. Barbiel (once of the order of virtues)
29. Batarjal
30. Beelzebub (once of the order of cherubim)
31. Beliar (Belial) [once partly of the order of virtues and partly of the order of angels]
32. Busasejal
33. Byleth (Beleth) [once of the order of powers)
34. Balberith (once of the order of cherubim)
35. Caim (Caym) [once of the order of angels]
36. Carnivean (once of the order of powers)
37. Carreau (once of the order of powers)
38. Dagon [Archangels]
39. Danjal
40. Ezekeel (Ezequeel)
41. Flauros (Hauras)
42. Gaap (once of the order of potentates) [Powers]
43. Gadreel
44. Gressil (once of the order of thrones)
45. Hakael
46. Hananel (Ananel)
47. Harut (Persian)
48. Iblis (Eblis, Haris) (Mohammedan Satan) [According to the Qur’an Iblis is a Jinn not an Angel]
49. Ielahih (once of the order of virtues)
50. Invart (once of the order of angels)
51. Jeqon
52. Jetrel
53. Kasdeja
54. Lauiah (Lauviah) (once partly of the order of thrones and partly of the order of cherubim)
55. Leviathan (once of the order of seraphim)
56. Lucifer (often, but erroneously, identified as Satan)
57. Mammon [Thrones]
58. Marchosias (once of the order of dominations)
59. Marut (Persian)
60. Mephistopheles [Archangel]
61. Meresin
62. Moloch (Moloc) [Archangel]
63. Mulciber
64. Murmur (once partly of the order of thrones and partly of the order of angels
65. Nelchael (once of the order of thrones)
66. Nilaihah (once of the order of dominations)
67. Oeillet (once of the order of dominations)
68. Olivier (once of the order of archangels)
69. Ouzza (Usiel)
70. Paimon (Paymon) (once of the order of dominations)
71. Penemue
72. Procell (once of the order of powers)
73. Pursan (Curson) [once of the order of virtues]
74. Raum (Raym) [once of the order of thrones]
75. Rimmon [Archangel]
76. Rosier (once of the order of dominations)
77. Rumael (Ramiel or Remiel)
78. Sammael (Satan, Asmodeus)
79. Samsaweel
80. Saraknyal
81. Sariel
82. Satan
83. Sealiah (once of the order of virtues)
84. Semyaza (Shemhazai, Azaziel) [once of the order of seraphim)
85. Senciner (once partly of the order of virtues and partly of the order of powers) [Virtues]
86. Shamshiel
87. Simapesiel
88. Sonneillon (once of the order of thrones)
89. Tabaet
90. Thammuz [Archangel]
91. Tumael
92. Turael
93. Turel
94. Urakbarameel
95. Usiel (Uzziel) [once of the order of virtues]
96. Verrier (once of the order of principalities)
97. Verrine (once of the order of thrones)
98. Vual (Vvall) [once of the order of powers]
99. Yomyael
100. Zavebe
also
Belphegor (Baal-Peor) [once of the order of principalities)
[ Of the above two lists of fallen angels Davidson’s analysis, cross-referenced to the wikipedia list only confirms 69 angels. What can we deduce from this? Only that the listing of fallen angels may contain many inaccuracies, concerning the number who fell, the names of the angel who fell and finally some deliberate error purported by the original authors to support religious concepts at that time of publication]

The Nine Choirs of Angels

Seraphim

These are the highest order or choir of angels. They are the angels who are attendants or guardians before God’s throne. They praise God, calling, “Holy Holy Holy is the Lord of Hosts”. the only Bible reference is Isaiah 6:1-7. One of them touched Isaiah’s lips with a live coal from the altar, cleansing him from sin. Seraphim have six wings, two cover their faces, two cover their feet, and two are for flying.

Cherubim

Cherubim rank after the seraphim and are the second highest in the nine hierarchies or choirs of angels. The Old Testament does not reveal any evidence that the Jews considered them as intercessors or helpers of God. They were closely linked in God’s glory. They are manlike in appearance and double-winged and were guardians of God’s glory. They symbolized then, God’s power and mobility. In the New Testament, they are alluded to as celestial attendants in the Apocalypse (Rv 4-6). Catholic tradition describes them as angels who have an intimate knowledge of God and continually praise Him.

Thrones

Thrones are the Angels of pure Humility, Peace and Submisssion. They reside in the area of the cosmos where material form begins to take shape. The lower Choir of Angels need the Thrones to access God.

Dominions

Dominions are Angels of Leadership. They regulate the duties of the angels, making known the commands of God.

Virtues

Virtues are known as the Spirits of Motion and control the elements. They are sometimes referred to as “the shining ones.” They govern all nature. They have control over seasons, stars, moon; even the sun is subject to their command. They are also in charge of miracles and provide courage, grace, and valor.>

Powers

Powers are Warrior Angels against evil defending the cosmos and humans. They are known as potentates. They fight against evil spirits who attempt to wreak chaos through human beings. The chief is said to be either Samael or Camael, both angels of darkness.

Archangels

Archangels are generally taken to mean “chief or leading angel” ( Jude 9; 1 Thes 4:16), they are the most frequently mentioned throughout the Bible. They may be of this or other hierarchies as St. Michael Archangel, who is a princely Seraph. The Archangels have a unique role as God’s messenger to the people at critical times in history and salvation (Tb 12:6, 15; Jn 5:4; Rv 12:7-9) as in The Annunciation and Apocalypse. A feast day celebrating the Archangels Michael, Gabriel and Raphael is celebrated throughout the Church Sep 29. A special part of the Byzantine Liturgy invokes the “Cherubic Hymn” which celebrates these archangels and the guardian angels particularly.

Of special significance is St. Michael as he has been invoked as patron and protector by the Church from the time of the Apostles. The Eastern Rite and many others place him over all the angels, as Prince of the Seraphim. He is described as the “chief of princes” and as the leader of the forces of heaven in their triumph over Satan and his followers. The angel Gabriel first appeared in the Old Testament in the prophesies of Daniel, he announced the prophecy of 70 weeks (Dn 9:21-27). He appeared to Zechariah to announce the birth of St. John the Baptist (Lk 1:11). It was also Gabriel which proclaimed the Annunciation of Mary to be the mother of our Lord and Saviour. (Lk 1:26) The angel Raphael first appeared in the book of Tobit (Tobias)Tb 3:25, 5:5-28, 6-12). He announces “I am the Angel Raphael, one of the seven who stand before the throne of God.” (Tb 12:15)

Principalities

In the New Testament Principalities refers to one type of spiritual (metaphysical) being which are now quite hostile to God and human beings. (Rom 8:38; 1 Cor 15:24; Eph 1:21; 3:10; 6:12; Col 1:16; 2:10, 15) Along with the principalities are the powers (Rom 8:38; 1 Cor 15:24; Eph 1:21; 1 Pt 3:22; 2 Thes 1:7); and cosmological powers (1 Cor 15:24; Eph 1:21; 3:10; Col 2:15);Dominions (Eph 1:21; Col 1:16) and thrones (Col1:16). The clarity of the New Testament witness helps see that these beings were created through Christ and for Him (Col 1:16). Given their hostility to God and humans due to sin, Christ’s ultimate rule over them (ibid) expresses the reign of the Lord over all in the cosmos. This is the Lordship of Christ, which reveals God’s tremendous salvation in conquering sin and death at the cross, and now takes place in the Church. (Eph 3:10)

Angels

These angels are closest to the material world and human begins. They deliver the prayers to God and God’s answers and other messages to humans. Angels have the capacity to access any and all other Angels at any time. They are the most caring and social to assist those who ask for help.

Angel Names: Names of Angels

A list of angel names and meanings, collected from history, lore and various experts of angels.

The following comprehensive list of traditional angel names were collected from different angelic sources for reference. Some of them are Biblical, while others are found within religions, legends and myths.

These angel names are of those angels considered to be of a friendly and helpful demeanor as opposed to our list of ill-intended, fallen angels. We’ve also included the meaning behind each moniker that may tell more of the story about each angel of note.

Abasdarhon – angel of the fifth hour of the night.
Abraxos – ancient name attributed to an angel.
Adnachiel – angel who rules November.
Adonael – an archangel.
Adonai – one of seven angels of the presence, or elohim; creator.
Aeshma – Persian archangel.
Af – angel of light.
Agla – angel who saved Lot and his family.
Akriel – angel who aids those with infertility.
Amitiel – angel of truth.
Amriel – angel of the month of May.
Anael – angel influencing love, passion and sexuality.
Anapiel – angel whose name means “branch of God.”
Anahel – angel who rules the third heaven.
Anpiel – angel who protects birds.
Ansiel – name of an angel known as “the constrainer.”
Arael – variation of Uriel; prince over the people.
Araqiel – angel with dominion over the earth.
Araton – one of seven ruling angels over the provinces of heaven.
Ariel – “lion of God;” angel of protection.
Armisael – angel of the womb.
Asariel – “whom God has bound;” rules the moon.
Asroilu – guardian angel of the seventh heaven.
Astanphaeus – one of the seven angels of the presence; third gate guardian.
Asteraoth – name of an angel who thwarts power.
Atrugiel – great prince of the seventh heaven.
Ayil – angel of the zodiac sign Sagittarius.
Azbogah – name of the high ranking angel of judgment.
Azrael – archangel of death.
Azriel – name for the angel of destruction.
Balthioul – angel with the power to thwart distress.
Baradiel – angel of hail.

Barakiel – angel of lightning.
Barrattiel – angel of support.
Barbiel – angel of October.
Bariel – ruling angel of the eleventh hour of the day.
Barman – angel of intelligence.
Barquiel – ruling angel of the seventh hour of the day.
Baruchiel – angel with power over strife.
Bath Kol – female angel of divine prophecy.
Bazazath – archangel of the second heaven.
Bethor – one of seven ruling angels of the province of heaven.
Briathos – name of an angel who thwarts demons.
Cahethal – seraphim angel over agriculture.
Camael – angel name that means “he who sees God;” chief angel of powers.
Cassiel – angel of Saturn.
Cerviel – angel ruler of the principalities.
Chamuel – archangel whose name means “he who seeks God.”
Chayyliel – angel whose name means “army;” a powerful angel.
Cochabiel – angel prince who stands before God.
Dabriel – angel of the first heaven who rules over Monday.
Dagiel – angel who has dominion over fish.
Dalquiel – angel prince of the third heaven.
Damabiath – angel of naval construction.
Dardariel – ruling angel of the eleventh hour.
Diniel – angel who protects infants.
Domiel – angel who guards the sixth hall of the seventh heaven.
Dubbiel – guardian angel of Persia; name means “bear-God.”
Duma – angel prince of dreams.
Dumah – angel of silence.
Eae – angel who thwarts demons.
Eiael – angel with dominion over the occult sciences.
Elyon – ministering angel who brought the plague of hail upon Egypt.
Emmanuel – angel whose name means “God with us.”
Erathaol – one of seven great archon angels.
Eremiel – great angel who presides over the Abyss and Hades.
Gabriel – archangel whose name means “man or hero of God.”
Gadriel – angel who rules the fifth heaven.
Galgaliel – prince angel of the sun, like Raphael.
Galizur – great angel who rules the second heaven.
Gamaliel – angel who takes the elect unto heaven.
Gazardiel – angel who supervises the east.
Geburatiel – angel prince who guards the seventh heaven.
Guriel – angel of the zodiac sign of Leo.
Gzrel – angel who revokes any evil decree against another in heaven.
Hadraniel – angel who stands at the second gate in heaven; “majesty of God.”
Hadriel – guardian angel of the gates of the east wind.
Hagith – one of the seven ruling angels of the provinces of heaven.
Halaliel – archangel known as “the lord of karma.”
Hamaliel – angel who rules the order of virtues.
Hamon – a great, honored, beautiful prince angel in heaven.
Haniel – an archangel who guards the tree of life.
Harahel – angel who oversees libraries.
Hasdiel – angel of benevolance.
Hasmal – fire speaking angel of the throne of God.
Hayliel – angel prince in the seventh heaven.
Haziel – angel whose name means “vision of God.”
Heman – angel leader of the heavenly choir, whose name means “trust.”
Hermesiel – angel who leads one of the heavenly choirs.
Hofniel – ruling angel of the bene elohim; name means “fighter of God.”
Iaoel – an angel of the lord; angel of visions.
Iaoth – archangel who has power to thwart demons.
Leo – an angel who thwarts demons.
Iofiel – archangel whose name means “beauty of God.”
Israfil – Islamic angel whose name means “the burning one.”
Jael – cherub who guards the ark of the covenant.
Jahoel – one of the angels of the presence and chief of the seraphim.
Jaoel – guardian angel who lives in the seventh heaven.
Jeduthun – angel whose name means “master of howling” or chanting to God.
Jefischa – ruling angel of the fourth hour of the night.

Jehudiel – archangel who rules the movements of the celestial spheres.
Jeremiel – archangel whose name means “mercy of God.”
Kabshiel – angel of grace and favor.
Kafziel – archangel who rules the planet Saturn.
Kakabel – angel who rules over stars and constellations.
Kalaziel – angel who has the power to thwart demons of disease.
Karael – angel who has the power to thwart demons.
Kemuel – archon angel and chief of the seraphim.
Kerubiel – prince angel of the cherubim.
Kokabiel – prince angel of the stars.
Kutiel – angel of water and the use of diving rods.
Labbiel – angel whose name was changed to Raphael.
Lahabiel – angel who protects against evil spirits.
Lamechial – angel who thwarts deception.
Lassuarium – angel who rules the tenth hour of the night.
Laylah – angel who oversees and protects childbirth.
Machidiel – angel governing the zodiac sign of Aries and the month of March.
Marmaroth – angel who has power to thwart fate.
Mendrion – angel who rules the seventh hour of the night.
Metatron – one of the greatest archangels, second only to God.
Michael – great archangel whose name means “who is as God.”
Mihr – angel of divine mercy; angel that governs September.
Miniel – angel invoked to induce love.
Mitatron – an angel of the third heaven.
Morael – angel of awe that rules the months of August-September.
Moroni – brought messages to Joseph Smith, founder of Mormonism.
Muriel – angel who rules the dominions and the month of June.
Naaririel – great prince angel of the seventh heaven.
Nahaliel – angel who governs running streams; “valley of God.”
Nanael – angel who governs the sciences, and philosophy.
Narcariel – angel that rules the eighth hour of the night.
Nasargiel – good angel with a lion head that rules hell.
Nathanael – angel ruling over hidden things, fire and vengeance.
Naya’il – angel of testing.
Nelchael – angel of the schemhamphorae.
Nuriel – angel of spellbinding power and of hail storms.
Och – one ruling angel of the provinces of heaven.
Omael – angel of chemistry and species perpetuation.
Onoel – name of an archon angel…
Ophaniel – prince angel over the ophanim.
Ophiel – one ruling angel of the provinces of heaven and Mercury.
Oriel – ruling angel of the tenth hour of the day.
Orifiel – archangel over thrones, and the second hour of the day.
Orphamiel – angel known as the “great finger of the Father.”
Osmadiel – ruling angel of the eighth hour of the day.
Ouriel – archangel who commands demons.
Pamyel – ruling angel of the ninth hour of night.
Pathiel – angel whose name means “opener of God.”
Peliel – angel who rules the virtues.
Peniel – angel who rules Friday and resides in the third heaven.
Pesagniyah – angel who ushers prayers of grief to heaven.
Phaleg – one of the seven ruling angels of the provinces of heaven.
Phanuel – archangel who is an interpreter of revelations.
Phounebiel – disease thwarting angel.
Phul one of the seven ruling angels of the provinces of heaven.
Pravuil – an archangel who keeps all the records of heaven.
Pronoia – an archon angel who helped make mankind.
Purah – angel of forgetfulness.
Puriel – angel whose name means “the fire of God;” angel of punishment.
Qaspiel – angel who rules the moon.
Quabriel – ruling angel of the ninth hour of the day.
Rachiel – ophanim angel who rules Venus and governs sexuality.
Rachmiel – angel of mercy whose name also means the same.
Radueriel – angel who can create other angels and oversees archives.
Raguel – angel who watches over the behavior of angels; “friend of God.”
Rahab – angel of death, destruction, but also the sea.
Rahatiel – angel prince of the constellations; name means “to run.”
Rahmiel – angel of mercy and love.
Ramiel – angel who oversees visions and souls during the day of judgment.
Raphael – great archangel whose name means “the shining one who heals.”
Rathanael – angel of the third heaven and thwarter of demons.
Raziel – angel chief over the thrones, guarding the secrets of the universe.
Remiel – angel who leads souls to judgment; name means “mercy of God.”
Rikbiel – angel who oversees the divine chariot; chief of wheels.
Rizoel – angel with power to thwart demons.
Rogziel – angel of punishment whose name means “the wrath of God.”
Ruman – angel who takes account of evil men’s deeds while in hell.
Sabaoth – archon angel of the presence.
Sabathiel – angel or intelligence who communicates divine light.
Sablo – angel of graciousness and protection.
Sabrael – archangel who guards the first heaven.
Sabrathan – ruling angel of the first hour of the night.
Sachiel – ruling angel of Jupiter whose name means “covering of God.”
Sagnessagiel – angel who guards the fourth hall of the seventh heaven.
Sahaqiel – angel prince of the fourth heaven.
Salathiel – rescuing angel of Adam and Eve.
Samkiel – angel of destruction and purifier of souls from sheol.
Samuel – fruling angel of the first hour of the day.
Sandalphon – giant angel whose name means “co-brother” (of Metratron).
Saniel – ruling angel of the sixth hour of the day.
Sarakiel – angel who rules the ministering angels.
Sarandiel – ruling angel of the twelfth hour of the night.
Satqiel – angel prince of the fifth heaven.
Seraphiel – chief angel of the seraphim angels.
Shamsiel – angel whose name means “light of day.”
Shepherd – angel of repentance.
Shoftiel – angel whose name means “the judge of God.”
Sidqiel – angel prince of the ophanim; ruler of Venus.
Sidriel – angel prince of the first heaven.
Simiel – archangel.
Sizouze – angel of prayer.
Sophia – angel whose name means “wisdom.”
Soqedhozi – angel who weighs the merits of of men before God.
Sorath – angel who is the spirit of the sun.
Sorush – angel who punishes souls on judgment day.
Soterasiel – angel whose name means “who stirs up the fire of God.”
Sraosha – angel who sets the world in motion.
Suriel – angel of healing whose name means “God’s command.”
Tagas – governing angel of singing angels.
Tartys – ruling angel of the second hour of the night.
Tatrasiel – great angelic prince.
Temeluch – angel caretaker who protects newborn babies and children.
Temperance – angel of the elixir of life.
Theliel – angel prince of love.
Tubiel – angel of summer.
Tzadkiel – angel of justice and guardian of the gates of the east wind.
Ubaviel – angel of the zodiac sign of Capricorn.
Umabel – angel of physics and astronomy.
Uriel – great archangel whose name means “God is my light.”
Usiel – an angel who stands before the throne of God.
Uzziel – cherubim angel whose name means “strength of God.”
Varhmiel – ruling angel of the fourth hour of the day.
Vequaniel – ruling angel of the third hour of the day.
Verchiel – ruling angel of the month of July and of the zodiac sign Leo.
Vretiel – swift in wisdom archangel responsible for recording God’s deeds.
Xathanael – the sixth angel created by God.
Yabbashael – an angel of the earth whose name means “the mainland.”
Yefefiah – archangel who is the prince of the Torah.
Yehudiah – benevolant angel of death.
Yerachmiel – an archangel who rules earth.
Yeshamiel – angel who rules the zodiac sign of Libra.
Yofiel – angel prince of the Torah commanding 53 legions of angels.
Zaapiel – angel punisher of wicked souls.
Zaazenach – ruling angel of the sixth hour of the night.
Zabkiel – angel who rules over the thrones.
Zachariel – angel governor of Jupiter.
Zachriel – angel who governs memories.
Zadkeil – archangel who rules heaven and stands in the presence of God.
Zagzagel – angel prince of the Torah and of wisdom.
Zakzakiel – angel of the seventh heaven who records good deeds.
Zaphiel – angel ruler of the cherubim.
Zaphkiel – archangel whose name means “knowledge of God.”
Zarall – cherub angel who guards the ark of the covenant.
Zazriel – angel whose name means “strength of God.”
Zehanpuryu – high ranking angel whose name means “one who sets free.”
Zerachiel – angel of the month of July and the sun.
Zophiel – angel whose name means “God’s spy.”
Zuriel – angel ruler of the principalities whose name means “my rock is God.”

Angel Name Meanings
Angel names find their roots within ancient cultures, such as Babylon, Assyria, and Egypt, as well as within Jewish, Christian and Muslim lore. Over thousands of years, angel names have evolved in spelling, meaning and use within religions, mysticism and magic, where the name of an angel is thought important in order to invoke angelic help.

Many of the angel names include a suffix word meaning, “of God(-el), or yah, which means, “Lord.” This way, angel names portray the importance of the angel’s connection with the divine. Angel names are, thus, traditionally viewed as being powerful. Most angel names will have the “el” incorporated; most fallen angel names will not.

Angel names used most frequently and best known are Gabrael, Raphael, Uriel and Ariel.

Fallen Angel Names

The following list is of traditional fallen angel names gathered from different religions, mythologies and lore. These angel names are of those angels considered to be of a bad nature and not names of good angels.

Fallen angel names find their roots within ancient cultures, such as Babylon, Assyria, and Egypt, as well as within Jewish, Christian and Muslim lore. Over thousands of years, angel names have evolved in spelling, meaning and use within religions, mysticism and magic, where the name of an angel is thought important in order to invoke angelic help. Some rituals are said to invoke good angels, while other rituals are performed to attempt to invoke fallen angels.

Many good angel names include a suffix word meaning of God (-el), or yah, which means Lord. This way, angel names portray the importance of the angel’s connection with the divine. Both the good and fallen names of angels are traditionally and superstitiously believed to be powerful by some people.

Fallen Angel Names

Abaddon – fallen angel of death whose name means “to destroy.”

Abezethibou – one-winged Red Sea fallen angel.

Allocen – fallen angel who is a duke in hell.

Amduscias – name of the fallen angel who appears as a unicorn.

Amon – fallen angel who is a strong marquis over 40 legions.

Amy – name of a fallen angel who is a president in hell.

Andras – fallen angel marquis and appears raven-headed.

Andrealphus – fallen angel who can transform humans into birds.

Andromalius – fallen angel who appears as a man holding a serpent.

Apollyon – fallen angel of death; same as Abaddon.

Armaros – fallen angel who teaches the “resolving of enchantments.”

Asmoday – fallen angel king with three heads: a bull, a ram, and a man.

Asmodeus – one of the most evil of fallen angels, being an archdemon.

Astaroth – fallen angel who is a grand duke in hell.

Azael – evil, fallen angel who cohabited with women.

Azazel – fallen angel whose name means “God strengthens.”

Azza – fallen angel whose name means “the strong.”

Baal – fallen angel whose name means “the lord.”

Balam – fallen angel who looks like Asmoday with a serpent tail.

Balberith – fallen angel who is a grand pontiff in hell.

Baraqijal – fallen angel who teaches astrology.

Barbatos – fallen angel who is a great count, earl and duke of hell.

Bathin – pale horse riding fallen angel.

Beelzebub – fallen angel known as the “prince of demons.”

Behemoth – fallen angel who is the “demon of the deep.”

Beleth – fallen angel who is a terrible king over 85 legions.

Belial – deceptively beautiful fallen angel whose name means “without worth.”

Belphegor – fallen angel whose name means “lord of opening.”

Berith – fallen angel…

Bernael – fallen angel of darkness and evil.

Bifrons – fallen angel that appears monstrous and teaches mathematical arts.

Botis – fallen angel who appears as a viper.

Buer – fallen angel who teaches philosophy, logic and ethics.

Bune – fallen angel who appears as a dragon with three heads.

Caim – fallen angel who appears as a thrush or man with a sword.

Dantanian – fallen angel who appears as a man with many faces.

Decarabia – fallen angel who appears as a star in a pentacle.

Eligor – fallen angel who appears as a good knight with lance.

Enepsigos – fallen angel who appears in the shape of woman.

Flauros – fallen angel who appears as a leopard.

Focalor – fallen angel who appears as a man with griffin wings.

Forcas – fallen angel who teaches logic and ethics.

Forneus – fallen angel marquis who appears as a sea monster.

Furcas – fallen angel who appears as a cruel man with long beard.

Furfur – fallen angel who appears as a hart with a fiery tail.

Gaap – fallen angel who appears as a man with bat wings.

Gadreel – fallen angel whose name means “God is my helper.”

Gamygyn – fallen angel who appears as a small horse.

Glasyalabolas – fallen angel who appears as a winged dog.

Gomory – fallen angel who appears as a camel riding woman of beauty.

Gusion – fallen angel who can discern the past, present or future.

Hagenti – fallen angel who appears as a bull with griffin wings.

Halpas – fallen angel who appears as a stork.

Imamiah – fallen angel who governs voyages.

Ipos – fallen angel who appears as an angel with a lion’s head.

Kokabiel – fallen angel whose name means “star of God.”

Kunopegos – fallen angel who appears as a sea horse and sinks ships.

Lahash – fallen angel who interferes with divine will.

Lerajie – fallen angel who appears as an archer in green.

Leviathon – fallen angel associated with the deep seas.

Lillith – fallen female angel who searches for children to kidnap or kill.

Lix Tetrax – fallen angel of the wind.

Lucifer – actually a Babylonian king whose name means “bearer of light.”

Malpas – fallen angel who appears as a crow.

Marbas – fallen angel who appears as a lion.

Marchosias – fallen angel who appears as a she-wolf with griffin wings.

Mastema – fallen angel whose name means “hostility.”

Mephistopheles – fallen angel; name means “he who loves not the light.”

Morax – fallen angel who appears as a bull.

Naamah – fallen angel of prostitution whose name means “pleasing.”

Naberius – fallen angel who appears as a crowing cock.

Obyzouth – fallen angel femal who kills newborns and cause still-births.

Onoskelis – female fallen angel who lives in caves and perverts men.

Orias – fallen angel who appears as a lion with serpent’s tail.

Ornias – fallen angel who is annoying and can shape-shift.

Orobas – fallen angel who appears as a horse.

Ose – fallen angel who appears as a leopard and is a president in hell.

Paimon – fallen angel who appears as a crowned man on a camel.

Penemuel – fallen angel who corrupts mankind through writing.

Pharzuph – fallen angel of fornication and lust.

Phoenix – fallen angel who appears as a phoenix bird.

Procel – fallen angel who can speak of hidden and secret things.

Purah – fallen angel of forgetfulness and the conjuring of the dead.

Purson – fallen angel who appears as a lion-headed man on a bear.

Qemuel – fallen angel who was destroyed by God.

Rahab – fallen angel of pride whose name means “violence.”

Raum – fallen angel who appears as a crow.

Ronobe – fallen angel who is a monster who teaches rhetoric and art.

Ruax – headache fallen angel.

Sabnack – fallen angel who appears as a soldier with lion’s head.

Saleos – fallen angel who appears as a soldier on a crocodile.

Samael – evil fallen angel whose name means “the blind God.”

Satan – christian fallen angel whose name means “adversary.”

Seere – fallen angel who appears as a man on a winged horse.

Semyaza – fallen angel leader and one of the Sons of God.

Shax – fallen angel who appears as a stork; stealer of money.

Solas – fallen angel who appears as a raven and teaches astronomy.

Sorath – fallen angel to some whose number is 666.

Sytry – fallen angel; appears as a man with griffin wings and leopard head.

Uzza – fallen angel whose name means “strength.”

Valac – fallen angel who appears as a small boy with wings on a dragon.

Valefor – fallen angel who appears as a many-headed lion.

Vapula – fallen angel who is skilled in handicrafts, science and philosophy.

Vassago – fallen angel who discovers all things lost or hidden.

Vepar – fallen angel who appears as a mermaid.

Vine – fallen angel and appears as a lion sitting on a black horse.

Vual – fallen angel who appears as a huge camel.

Wormwood – fallen angel who brings plagues upon the Earth.

Xaphan – fallen angel who fires the fires of hell.

Zagan – fallen angel who can transform things; looks like a bull with wings.

Zepar – fallen angel who makes women love men.

Fallen Angels

What are Fallen Angels?

by Louis Charles

Certain religions teach that fallen angels, once pure messengers of God, followed the Devil (or Satan) out of heaven in rebellion against the Creator. In this belief, it is taught that fallen angels now rule the earth realm as angelic principalities and powers. They claim that this spiritual conflict is largely unseen, with heavenly, Holy angels combating the fallen angels who are under the charge of Satan (or Lucifer).

Some teachings equate fallen angels with being demons who roam the Earth looking to inflict harm upon mankind. They have even assigned them names (see Fallen Angel Names). In Fundamental Christianity, for example, it is taught that fallen angels will one day be fully loosed upon the Earth, permitted by God to wreak the worst possible havoc in order for mankind to repent and accept Jesus as savior. Those who accept Christ, they claim, will be saved from such wrath, including the eventual eternal punishment waged by God against Satan, his fallen angels, and unrepentant mankind.

False teachings about fallen angels, demons, devils, Satan, Lucifer and the like have been woven together into what many believe today by comparing ancient manuscripts primarily found within the Old and New Testaments. Other ancient writings have also been scoured to fill in gaps, such as 1 Enoch, and Jubilees. Such teachings though, have created a great misunderstanding concerning fallen angels, and even angels in general (read about Angels). Angels are messengers, and fallen angels are messengers whose message is unenlightened. Allow me to explain. When one speaks spiritual truth, or better yet, expresses love to another, this is an enlightened message. Angels, ministering spirits, speak messages of encouragement and guidance, always given with love being the motivator.

Fallen Angels are Lost Spirits

In contrast, fallen angels are messengers whose message does not come from a heart of love, but is truly an expression of fear. To understand this, we must first understand that negative entities, or ghosts, are earthbound spirits of humans. These spirits interact with those of us in bodies, sometimes speaking their messages, or rather fears to us. A spirit remains here with the living for numerous reasons. Perhaps the person has unfinished business, or maybe they feel compelled to deliver a message to someone. For whatever reason a disembodied spirit remains attached to this realm, ultimately it is due to fear. This fear paralyzes the person, and is a state of mental anguish – hell. Imagine receiving a message from someone in an unstable state of mind. Would you expect it to be enlightening?

The word “fallen” simply indicates one’s position. Heaven is another word for Spirit, and it conveys the idea of higher elevation – a higher place, if you will. When we are at peace, and living our lives through love and truth, we are indeed in a higher position. Upon death of the physical body, the spirit is free and normally gravitates toward the light, and continues the life-journey toward the higher position. Why the light? The light is a cleansing process, of which the spirit receives a life-review, and eventually deals with issues created during time spent interacting in the physical plane. Spirits will interact with the living, observing, guiding, and bringing direction to those in physical bodies from time to time. They are angels, caring about the whole of mankind and its elevation unto knowing truth and peace. What truth, you say? The truth that we are connected – one. That we are eternal spirits, and there is no death, no punishment, or loss. Such ideas are illusionary, created by living our lives externally within physical bodies.

However, if a spirit decides to not enter into the light and receive the mental cleaning, it is because of fear. Maybe fear of loss, fear of the unknown, fear of punishment, guilt, shame, doubt, worry, or whatever; all of these are forms of fear. A spirit who decides to remain behind is not able to “rise up” out of their condition easily. The ascension, or resurrection of the mind cannot occur, for it is bound to the earthly state for a season.  So, the restless spirit is alone, afraid, and quite attached to the physical world it felt so comfortable with.  And so, fallen angels have missed their opportunity to be whole, cleansed by love, truth, and a new understanding.  In a sense, most human beings are indeed fallen angels, for we are spirits having an earthly experience, but many of us are lost to the truth of who we really are.

The condition of such fallen angels are temporary, for the whole of Divinity is ever-growing, always expanding, progressing, and essentially being freed from false beliefs, namely fear. It is love that frees the fallen angels, and it is love that will eventually remove all fear.

We have a primary list of passages found within ancient manuscripts, such as the Bible, that are used to promote fearful, thus false ideas, concerning angels. By taking such passages literally, they can be used to create fear in the minds of those who choose to believe such things.  Many of these are to be understood spiritually in parabolic fashion, especially the sayings of Jesus found within the four gospels, and Revelation a book of symbolism: Genesis 6:1, Deuteronomy 32:8, I Samuel 16:14; 18:10; 19:9, I Kings 22:19, Psalm 82:1, Isaiah 26:14, Enoch 6:1; 7:1; 10:11; 12:4; 15:8, Jubilees 5:1-2, 6, Matthew 25:41, Ephesians 6:12, Hebrews 2:5, Jude 6, I Peter 3:19, II Peter 2:4, Revelation 9:11, 13.

Demon Names

Some fear demons, even their names. But we view the use of the term “demons” in the Bible and elsewhere as an allegory representing hurtful, negative thoughts or the “mis-thinking” of a person’s mind. Incorrect beliefs can be held by anyone, no matter which side of the grave (e.g. ill-behaving ghosts). The mental condition is the person and where they are living – for some, their condition may be truly termed as, “hell.” If we produce negative thoughts (we battle our own demons), then the mind that produces them must be the devil.

The following is a historic rundown of demon names. We have ordered the demon names alphabetically, complete with rank of each demon of the underworld, as classically taught.
Louis Charles

Signed Demon Names

Abaddon : Hebrew root meaning “to destroy”, same as Apollyon
Apollyon (Abaddon) : The King of Demons Rev 9:11
Abigor : Christian demonology – commands 60 legions
Adramelech: Arch Demon whose name means, “King of Fire”
Agares : First Duke of the East, commands 31 legions; appears willingly
Alocer : Strong Duke commands 36 legions; lion’s face, dressed as a knight on a horse
Amduscius : Great Duke, governs 29 legions; looks like a unicorn

Andras : Marquesse, commands 30 legions; bird head with angel-like wings

Asmoday : Prince of demons; thought to be the serpent that deceived Eve

Asmodeus : Demon of wrath, banished by Raphael in the Book of Tobit 8:3

Astaroth : Strong Duke over 40 legions and the treasurer of hell

Aym : Great Duke, who commands 26 legions; from christian demonology

Ayperos : Prince, commands 36 legions; from christian demonoly

Azazel : Chief of the goat-demons or “hairy demons”

Bael : Head of the Infernal Armies of 66 legions

Balam : Terrible king with three heads and commands 40 legions

Beelzebub : Prince of Demons, aka Lord of the Flies, former highest ranking angel in heaven

Belial : Chief of all devils, brings about wickedness and guilt

Belphegor : Demon or “god” of the Moabites, Numbers 25

Berith : Great Duke of hell who governs 26 legions, appears as a red soldier on a red horse

Bifrons : declares the understanding of geometry, astrology and other arts

Botis : Appears as a viper, and proclaims the past and future

Buer : President of hell, of the second order, and commands 50 legions

Caym : Great President who takes the shape of a thrush; rules 30 legions

Charon : The boat man who brings souls across the river Styx

Cresil : Demon of impurity and laziness

Crocell : Grand Duke who appears as an angel, and governs 48 legions

Deumos : Female demon with 4 horns and a crown

Eurynome : Superior demon who feeds on corpses; the Prince of Death

Focalor : Grand Duke who drowns men and overthrows ships of war

Furfur : Count of hell, commands 26 legions; appears as angel with a flaming tail

Gaap : Prince of hell, intensifies love and hatred; transporter demon

Geryon : Giant centaur, guardian of hell

Haures : Strong Duke of hell, commands 20 legions and is very frightful with eye aflame

Ipos : Demon count of hell who commands 36 legions; looks like a lion-headed angel

Jezebeth : Demon of falsehoods and lies

Kasdeya : From the “Book of Enoch”, the 5th Satan

Kobal : Demon of hilarity

Leonard : Master of black magic and sorcery

Leviathan : Dragon of the Sea, the Crooked Serpent of the abyss

Lilith : Demon of waste.

Lucifer : Light bearer, son of the morning; former seraphim cast out of heaven

Malphas : Grand president of hell, commands 40 legions; appears as a raven

Mammon : Demon of avarice

Mastema : Leader of fallen angels whose job is to tempt men to sin and accuse them before God

Melchom : Demon who carries the money purse; payer of servants

Mephistopheles : Another name for the devil in the Middle Ages

Merihim : Dark Prince of pestilence

Moloch : Demon worshipped by the Israelites through child sacrifice

Mullin : Demon lieutenant of the demon Leonard

Murmur : Great Duke, comes with trumpets sounding and rules 30 legions

Naberius : Strong demon in charge of 29 legions, a Marquis of hell

Nergal : Second order demon, commands the secret police

Nicor : Water demon known for drowning humans; can cause hurricanes, tempests and the like

Nybbas : Manager of visions and dreams, inferior order charlatan

Nysrogh : Second order demon, chief of the house of princes

Oriax : Marquis, demon who commands 30 legions; teaches astrology

Ornias : name of the harassing demon

Ose : Great President, governs 30 legions

Paymon : a king of hell, master of ceremonies; governs 200 legions

Philatanus : Demon who assists Belial in sodomy and pedophile behaviors

Proserpine : aka Persephone, princess of hell

Pruflas : head of 26 legions, has the head of an owl; provokes wars and quarrels

Pyro : Prince of falsehoods and lies

Raum : Count or Great Earle, commands 30 legions; seen as a crow

Rimmon : aka Damas, an ambassador from hell

Ronove : Marquis of hell, commanding 19 legions, teaches languages

Ronwe : Inferior demon, commands 19 legions

Samael : Demon angel of death, prince of the power of the air

Semiazas : Chief demon of fallen angels

Shax : Duke of hell, commanding 30 legions, deceitful thief; appears as a stork

Shalbriri : Demon of blindness

Sonneillon : Demon of hatred

Stolas : High prince of hell, commanding 26 legions; teacher of astronomy and plant properties

Succorbenoth : Chief eunuch, sexless, demon of gates

Thamuz : Ambassador of hell, demon master of big weapons

Ukobach : Inferior demon who maintains the fires of hell; appears ablaze

Uphir : Demon physician

Uvall : Duke, commanding 36 legions, knows the past, present and future; strong and scary

Valafar : Strong Duke, commands 10 legions, appears in the shape of a lion

Vepar : Grand Duke, strong; guide of waters, like a mermaid

Verdelet : Master of ceremonies

Verin : Demon of impatience

Vetis : Demon of corruption

Xaphan : Second order demon, former fallen angel, fans the furnace flames

Zagan : Demon King, deceitful, commands 33 legions

Zepar : Grand Duke, appears as a soldier, commanding 26 legions

Devil Names

A list of devil names from different sources, the following list has been compiled using both traditional and non-traditional names for the devil gathered from different religions, mythologies and lore. These devil names are both common and uncommon with many of them being biblical.

The word “devil” is believed to have been derived from the word diabolos, which means “slanderer” or “false accuser.” Though many fear the idea of the devil being a diabolical creature, it is really just an allegory that represents the ego, a false perception of “self” that wars within all humanity. This battle that rages within mankind is often depicted as the devil sitting on one shoulder and an angel on the other. When you read through the devil names below, you will notice this common theme. – Louis Charles

Devil Names: Signature of the Devil?

Abbadon

Accuser

Adversary

Ancient Serpent

Angel of the Abyss

Angel of the Bottomless Pit

Angel of Light

Antichrist (or “Anti-Christ”)

Apollyon

Arch Fiend

Asmodeus

Author of Evil

Author of All Sin

Awful Monster

Beelzebub (“Beelsebub”)

Belial

Chief of Demons

Deceiver

Delial

Demon

Destroyer

Devil

Devourer

Dragon

Ego

Enemy

Enemy of Good

Enemy of Righteousness

Evil One

Evil Spirit

Fallen Angel

Father of Contention

Fallen Intellect

Father of Lies (“Father of all Lies”)

Father of All Wickednes

Fiend

Founder of Murder

God of This Age

God of This World

Great Antichrist

Great Dragon

Hooven Cloof

His Satanic Majesty

Imitator

Leonard

Le Cornu

Liar (“Liar from the Beginning”)

Lucifer

Mammon

Mefistofeles (“Mephistopheles”)

Mr. Sam

Mr. Scratch

Murderer (“Murderer from the Beginning”)

Old Gentleman

Old Gooseberry

Old Harry

Old Horny

Old Nick

Old Serpent

Oppressor of Saints

Perdition

Pocker

Prince of Air (“Prince of the Power of the Air”)

Prince of Darkness

Prince of Devils

Prince of Hell

Prince of Pandemonium

Prince of This World

Proud One

Roaring Lion

Ruler of Demons

Ruler of This World

Satan

Satanel

Serpent (“Serpent of Old”)

Slanderer

Son of Perdition

Son of the Morning

Sower of Discord

Spoiler

Stinkin’ Thinker

Tempter

Wicked One

More About the Devil & You

The devil, or satan, are biblical metaphors that depict the fallen mindset of humanity, especially representing the times we succumb to thoughts of fear, condemnation, guilt, etc. All of us have done this, and by design, these times are for our learning. The thoughts that are produced by this “devil” could also be considered to be its demons in the most allegorical sense.

Demons In The Bible

Demons in the Bible

by Louis Charles

Peruse our collection of some of the verses found in the Bible (and Hebrew text) that reference “demons” and learn what the demonic represents to mankind.

The Bible is full of parables about who we are as people, and the idea of a dual-nature (both good and bad) being within us is central to understanding these stories. When we explore the passages from a metaphorical perspective, demons are used in biblical lore to convey the spiritual idea that negative, unclean thoughts are erroneous, not based upon truth, and are mistakenly created by the human mind. In other words, we have the ability to pick what we believe and hold to be true. If we choose to follow negativity, then suffering will be the result.

If demons represent negative thinking in the Bible, then “The Devil” or “Satan” is symbolic for the fallen mind of man that chooses to create and follow debased thoughts and destructive thinking patterns. And if we continue down this path of allegory, then angels can be representative of messengers, people, or the actual, elevated thoughts, themselves. A false or derogatory message would, thus, originate from a “fallen angel” – a person who is un-enlightened and could even be equated with the false message itself.

Understanding that “the Kingdom of Heaven is within you” is key to seeing these entities as something that resides inside of us, not as evil creatures but as thoughts, beliefs, fears, strongholds in our thinking, etc. Maybe, thoughts are spirit, and to be demon-possessed is to be held captive by thoughts and beliefs that are untrue. From this perspective, one might choose to see the battle between angels and demons as really the contrast between light and darkness, between truth and that which only appears to be true, but isn’t, within our mind.

Matthew 4:24: “…they brought unto him [Jesus] all sick people that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and those which were possessed with devils, and those which were lunatic, and those that had the palsy…”

Matthew 8:16: “When the even was come, they brought unto him many that were possessed with devils…”

Matthew 8:28-34: “And when he [Jesus] was come to the other side into the country of the Gergesenes, there met him two possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce…” (KJV; devils are typically translated as demons in most other Bible versions)

Matthew 9:32-33: “As they went out, behold, they brought to him a dumb man possessed with a devil.”

Matthew 10:1: “And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease.”

Matthew 12:22: “Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb…”

Matthew 12:43-45: “When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none.”

Matthew 15:22: “And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou Son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.”

Matthew 17:14-18: “There came to him a certain man, kneeling down to him, and saying, Lord, have mercy on my son: for he is lunatick, and sore vexed…And Jesus rebuked the devil; “

Mark 1:23: “And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out…”

Mark 3:11: “And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him, and cried…”

Mark 3:22-26: “And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem said, He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils casteth he out devils.”

Mark 5:2-20: “…there met him [Jesus] out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit, who had his dwelling among the tombs; and no man could bind him, no, not with chains: Because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces: neither could any man tame him. And always, night and day, he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting himself with stones.”

Mark 6:7: “And he called unto him the twelve, and began to send them forth by two and two; and gave them power over unclean spirits;”

Mark 7:2: “For a certain woman, whose young daughter had an unclean spirit, heard of him, and came and fell at his feet:”

Mark 9:17-25: “I have brought unto thee my son, which hath a dumb spirit; And wheresoever he taketh him, he teareth him: and he foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth, and pineth away:…and when he saw him, straightway the spirit tare him; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming…[Jesus] rebuked the foul spirit…”

Mark 9:38: “…Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he followeth not us…”

Mark 16:9: “…Jesus…appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.”

Mark 16:17: “And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils…”

Luke 4:33: “And in the synagogue there was a man, which had a spirit of an unclean devil, and cried out with a loud voice…”

Luke 4:41: “and devils also came out of many, crying out…”

Luke 8:2-3 “And certain women, which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils, And Joanna the wife of Chuza Herod’s steward, and Susanna, and many others…”

Luke 8:33: “Then went the devils out of the man, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the lake, and were choked.”

Luke 9:38-42: “…a man of the company cried out, saying, Master, I beseech thee, look upon my son: for he is mine only child. And, lo, a spirit taketh him, and he suddenly crieth out; and it teareth him that he foameth again, and bruising him hardly departeth from him….And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit…”

Luke 10:17: “And the seventy returned again with joy, saying, Lord, even the devils are subject unto us through thy name.”

Luke 11:14: “And he [Jesus] was casting out a devil, and it was dumb…”

Luke 11:15: “But some of them said, He casteth out devils through Beelzebub the chief of the devils.”

John 7:20-21: “The people answered and said, Thou hast a devil: who goeth about to kill thee?”

John 8:48-49: “Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and

hast a devil?”

John 10:20: “And many of them said, He hath a devil, and is mad; why hear ye him?”

A number of references relate to the final destiny of Satan (representing the mis-thinking mind of man) and his demons (represents the fallen or lower thoughts of mankind). They are to be thrust into Hell (the mind suffering from mistaken thinking), described as a lake of fire. In these passages, Satan’s fallen angels apparently refer to his demons:

Matthew 25:4: “Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.”

1 Peter 2:4: “For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment.”

Jude 1:6: “And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.”

Revelation 12:9: “And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.”

Demons (or thoughts) are also mentioned elsewhere in the Christian Scriptures:

Acts 19:13-16: “And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overcame them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded.”

James 2:19: “Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well: the devils also believe, and tremble.”

Revelation 9:20: “And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk.”

Some passages seem to describe how Satan (or the Devil) can adopt a spirit form, reside inside a person, and influence their thoughts and behavior in the same way as a demon. Ephesians 2:2 describes Satan as a spirit who works within “the children of disobedience.” Consider, again, the idea that a corrupt mind is “our devil” and “adversary” that can rob us of peace and influence our behavior:

John 13:2 describes how Satan “put into” Judas Iscariot’s mind the decision (or thought) to betray Jesus.

Acts 5:3 describes how Satan filled Ananias’ heart with the decision (the thought) to lie to the Holy Ghost about the proceeds of a real estate sale.

The Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament):

The King James Version of the Bible often used the term “devils” which some readers assume are Satan’s demons. Other translations use “heathen gods,” “idols,” etc. They probably refer to the gods worshiped by pagan tribes (or the idols that represented those false gods):

Leviticus 17:7: “And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, [literally “hairy ones”] after whom they have gone a whoring.”

Deuteronomy 32:17: “They sacrificed unto devils, not to God; to gods whom they knew not, to new gods that came newly up…”

2 Chronicles 11:15: “And he ordained him priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the [statues of] calves which he had made.”

Psalms 106:35-37: “But were mingled among the heathen, and learned their works. And they served their idols: which were a snare unto them. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils.”

Evil spirits that cause mental disturbances are mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. But, they were not dispatched or controlled by Satan; they were sent by God to torment people. Again, think about the mind of man being filled with demons (corrupted thinking) in order to bring suffering:

Judges 9:23: “Then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem…”

1 Kings 22:23: “…behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets…”

1 Samuel 16:14: “But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him.” (KJV)

1 Sam 18:10: “And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul…”

1 Sam 19:9: “And the evil spirit from the LORD was upon Saul…”

First Wave of Fallen Angels

Chapter 2 – The First Wave of Fallen Angels
What about the other Fallen Angels?
There are other fallen angels besides Satan. God made many angels on the first day of creation. We know that about 1/3 of the total number of angels  became sinful under Satan’s influence, before Jesus Christ was born.

“And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads. And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.” Rev 12:3-4

The tail of the dragon Satan casting these stars down to earth shows that they became sinful under Satan’s influence. The timing shows that this occurred before Jesus was born. That the angels are compared to the stars of heaven demonstrates that there are many angels, but only a third of the total number of angels became fallen.

The Bible details that the angels who fell did so in two waves.
The first wave occurred before the flood, and they were imprisoned in the Abyss.
The second wave fell after the flood, and these were cast down to earth with Satan after they lost the battle in heaven.

The first wave of fallen angels
“For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast [them] down to hell, and delivered [them] into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth [person], a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly; And turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrha into ashes condemned [them] with an overthrow, making [them] an ensample unto those that after should live ungodly” 2 Pet 2:4-6

“And angels who did not keep their own domain, but abandoned their proper abode, He has kept in eternal bonds under darkness for the judgment of the great day. Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.” Jude 1:6-7
The first angels who sinned did so by ‘not keeping their own domain and abandoning their proper abode’. This is directly compared to the sins of Sodom, in which the men sinned by going after strange flesh and fornication. What happened in Sodom is that the men were not only seeking homosexual relations, but were trying to have homosexual relations with angels sent by God (Gen 19). And so it can be gathered that the first wave of angels that sinned did so in a sexual way. 2 Pet 2 indicates a chronological order of events, first the time of this sin, then the flood of Noah’s time, and then the time of Sodom. And so this sin can be gathered to have occurred before the flood. It should also be noted that the term used here for these sinning angels is “aggelos”, meaning that they were of the “messenger” type of angel. As we have covered, messenger angels looked human, and were also known as “watchers” or “sons of God”.

This all seems to parallel a story found in Gen 6:
“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they [were] fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also [is] flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years. There were giants in the earth in those days and also afterwards, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare [children] to them, the same [became] mighty men which [were] of old, men of renown.” Gen 6:1-4

This story details that some messenger type angels, who are always described to look like men, took human women as wives, even in polygamy. When did this start happening? When men began to multiply and have daughters, which would indicate as early as when Adam had daughters, perhaps within 200-300 years after the fall into sin. This story also details that these fallen angels and the women had children who were giant men, the term used for them is “Nephilim”. And so these giants were on the earth from the time of those days when Adam had daughters, and after that time, up to the time of the flood when only Noah and his family were spared.
We are going to cover more on these “Nephilim” in more detail later, but for now will stick to the first wave of fallen angels.

2 Pet 2 indicates that these sinful messenger angels, these sons of God, who went after strange flesh, were punished shortly before or at the time of the flood, chronologically. It is also made clear that these sinful angels were imprisoned in chains, in darkness, until the time of the “judgment of the great day”. The term “hell” here for the location of their prison is actually “Tartaros”, which means the “deepest abyss of hell”, and this word is only used here in the New Testament. However, a synonymous term “Abyss” is used several times in the book of Revelation, in the phrase “bottomless pit”. This is the same place Satan will be imprisoned for 1000 years according to Rev 20. As such, it seems that the bottomless pit or Abyss is a place that a fallen angel could be imprisoned in, as Satan will be. And also we know that Tartaros is a place where fallen angels are said to now be imprisoned. As the terms have synonymous meanings, it makes sense that this is the same place. Currently the first wave of fallen angels are imprisoned in Tartaros, which seems to be the same place that is called the Abyss. Later, Satan will be imprisoned there. But before Satan is imprisoned in the Abyss, several other events take place.

“Then the fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen to earth from the sky, and he was given the key to the shaft of the bottomless pit. When he opened it, smoke poured out as though from a huge furnace, and the sunlight and air were darkened by the smoke. Then locusts came from the smoke and descended on the earth, and they were given power to sting like scorpions. They were told not to hurt the grass or plants or trees but to attack all the people who did not have the seal of God on their foreheads. They were told not to kill them but to torture them for five months with agony like the pain of scorpion stings. In those days people will seek death but will not find it. They will long to die, but death will flee away! The locusts looked like horses armed for battle. They had gold crowns on their heads, and they had human faces. Their hair was long like the hair of a woman, and their teeth were like the teeth of a lion. They wore armor made of iron, and their wings roared like an army of chariots rushing into battle. They had tails that stung like scorpions, with power to torture people. This power was given to them for five months. The have before them a king, the angel from the bottomless pit; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon–the Destroyer.” Rev 9:1-11

Here we see that “locusts” come out of the Abyss after the 5th trumpet sounds. The term “locusts” may be symbolic, or be how these creatures look. But these “locusts” have human faces, as do messenger angels which look like men, and long hair, like someone who hasn’t had a haircut in a very long time. Right now the only entities that seem to currently be bound in the prison of the Abyss are the “sons of God” mentioned in Gen 6, 2 Pet and Jude. If the key to this prison were to be given to a fallen angel, and the prison of the Abyss was to be opened, it makes sense that what would come out would be these same “sons of God”. And so it is possible that these “locusts” with human faces and hair, may be the same messenger-type angels that have been imprisoned in the Abyss since the time of the Flood.

Looking at the Greek, these locusts have before them, in their presence, a king described to be a fallen messenger-type angel, who also comes from the Abyss. This angel’s name is Abaddon or Apollyon, which means the Destroyer.

More is said on this fallen angel called the Destroyer who comes out of the Abyss.

“When they complete their testimony, the beast that comes up out of the bottomless pit will declare war against them. He will conquer them and kill them.” Rev 11:7

This fallen angel, the Destroyer, is also called a “beast”. In context, he kills the two witnesses of Revelation.

“Why are you so amazed?” the angel asked. “I will tell you the mystery of this woman and of the beast with seven heads and ten horns. The beast you saw was alive but isn’t now. And yet he will soon come up out of the bottomless pit [the Abyss] and go to eternal destruction. And the people who belong to this world, whose names were not written in the Book of Life from before the world began, will be amazed at the reappearance of this beast who had died.” Rev 17:7-8

Here it is made clear that this fallen angel, the Destroyer, is confirmed to be the same one who comes out of the Abyss. This is the same Beast who this woman rides, the same Beast who has seven heads and ten horns. However, this also identifies this fallen angel as the Beast out of the Sea:

“And now in my vision I saw a beast rising up out of the sea. It had seven heads and ten horns, with ten crowns on its horns. And written on each head were names that blasphemed God. This beast looked like a leopard, but it had bear’s feet and a lion’s mouth! And the dragon gave him his own power and throne and great authority. I saw that one of the heads of the beast seemed wounded beyond recovery–but the fatal wound was healed! All the world marveled at this miracle and followed the beast in awe. They worshiped the dragon for giving the beast such power, and they worshiped the beast. “Is there anyone as great as the beast?” they exclaimed. “Who is able to fight against him?” Rev 13:1-4

There may be more about this angel the Destroyer in the Bible, in a section of prophecy with 2 meanings, much like Satan is addressed in Isa 14 and Eze 28. This section is Ezekiel 31, and it also seems to parallel and give more detail about the “sons of God” who were imprisoned in the Abyss. It seems to tell the general story of the events of Gen 6, and their imprisonment.

“Son of man, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude; Whom art thou like in thy greatness? Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, and of an high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs. The waters made him great, the deep set him up on high with her rivers running round about his plants, and sent her little rivers unto all the trees of the field. Therefore his height was exalted above all the trees of the field, and his boughs were multiplied, and his branches became long because of the multitude of waters, when he shot forth. All the fowls of heaven made their nests in his boughs, and under his branches did all the beasts of the field bring forth their young, and under his shadow dwelt all great nations. Thus was he fair in his greatness, in the length of his branches: for his root was by great waters. The cedars in the garden of God could not hide him: the fir trees were not like his boughs, and the chestnut trees were not like his branches; nor any tree in the garden of God was like unto him in his beauty. I have made him fair by the multitude of his branches: so that all the trees of Eden, that were in the garden of God, envied him.”

Here we have a reference to the time before the flood, when Eden was still known in location. This Assyrian was a king, and he is compared to a very tall tree, with many long branches and thick boughs or foliage. He is described as the tallest tree, with many fair branches. The heavy repeated emphasis here on height may be a parallel to what the sons of God are known for in Gen 6, that their children were tall giants. There does seem to be a parallel. As such the Assyrian may be the Beast, the king of the time before the flood, and the leader of the sons of God who all had giant tall offspring. The “fair” branches mentioned here may be his wives, the “daughters of men” who were “fair” of Genesis 6. And the “boughs who were multiplied” and “thick boughs” or foliage, leaves,  may refer to the many giant children had by this angel, in the time before the flood.
The Assyrian is said to have been in Lebanon, and by the waters, which is perhaps where the 4 rivers branched out from the river that flowed out of Eden. (Gen 2) Yet other trees are mentioned, some of the field